ISO 21815-1:2022 pdf – Earth-moving machinery — Collision warning and avoidance — Part 1: General requirements.
1 Scope This document provides terminology and general guidance on the principles of collision warning and collision avoidance systems for: — earth moving machinery as defined in ISO 6165, — mobile underground mining machinery as defined in ISO 19296, and — road construction machinery as defined in ISO 22242. This document provides general requirements for detection of objects, warnings to the operator, automatic intervention control to avoid collision, and test procedures. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the other parts of the ISO 21815 series, which provide detailed guidance and requirements for collision warning and collision avoidance systems and determining risk areas and risk levels. The specific requirements and definitions for particular types of machines are defined in the use case parts of the ISO 21815 series. This document covers collision avoidance by speed reduction or motion inhibit: it does not cover avoidance by automatic manoeuvring (e.g. steering) away from the intended object. The systems described in this document are only intended to assist the operator of the machine. The responsibility for safe operation of the machine remains with the operator of the machine. This document is not applicable to collision warning and collision avoidance systems installed to the machine before the date of its publication. 2 Normative references The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. ISO 3450:2011, Earth-moving machinery — Wheeled or high-speed rubber-tracked machines — Performance requirements and test procedures for brake systems ISO 12100:2010, Safety of machinery — General principles for design — Risk assessment and risk reduction
4 Performance requirements 4.1 General requirements 4.1.1 General Machinery and systems shall comply with the safety requirements and/or protective/risk reduction measures of this document. In addition, the machine and systems shall be designed according to the principles of ISO 12100:2010 for relevant but not significant hazards which are not dealt with by this document. This document specifies the principles of operation, basic functionality, system requirements and general test requirements for collision warning and collision avoidance systems. The ISO 21815 series intends to support the operator to safely operate the machine. The ISO 21815 series is not intended to require plug-and-play capability between CxS devices and machines. Technical details not described in this document should be agreed upon between the CxS device manufacturer, the machine manufacturer and system integrator, as applicable. 4.1.2 Electro-magnetic compatibility (EMC) A CxS device providing CWS capability shall be in conformance with ISO 13766-1. A CxS device that provides CAS capability shall be in conformance with both ISO 13766-1 and ISO 13766-2. The EMC testing of the CxS device may be performed treating the CxS device as an electronic sub-assembly or with the CxS device incorporated into the machine. NOTE The addition of a CxS device could negatively impact conformance of the machine to ISO 13766-1 or ISO 13766-2 and can require a combined re-evaluation of the CxS-equipped machine. 4.1.3 Environmental condition requirements Safety-related parts (SRP) of a CxS device providing CAS capability identified according to the definition in ISO 19014-1 or the ISO 13849 series shall meet the requirements of ISO 19014-3.
4.1.4 Functional safety The consequence of adding CxS device shall be analysed using a risk assessment. The addition of a CxS device with CWS or CAS capability shall not negatively impact the performance level achieved (e.g. the ISO 19014 series, ISO 15998, the ISO 13849 series) of the safety control system of the original machine. NOTE The addition of CxS device could require a combined re-evaluation of the CxS device-equipped machine. 4.1.5 Risk assessment A risk assessment for a CxS device-equipped machine shall be completed according to the principles of ISO 12100 by the system integrator. All identified risks shall be mitigated to acceptable risk levels as part of the risk assessment process. The results of the risk assessment shall be formally documented.