ISO 16559:2022 pdf – Solid biofuels — Vocabulary.
1 Scope This document establishes a vocabulary for solid biofuels. This document only includes raw and processed material originating from — forestry and arboriculture, — agriculture and horticulture, and — aquaculture. NOTE 1 Chemically treated material cannot include halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals at levels higher than those in typical virgin material values (see also ISO 17225-1:2021, Annex B) or higher than typical values of the country of origin. NOTE 2 Raw and processed material includes woody, herbaceous, fruit and aquatic biomass and biodegradable waste originating from above sectors. Materials originating from different recycling processes of end-of-life-products are outside the scope of this document but relevant terms are included for information. Liquid biofuels (ISO/TC 28/SC 7), natural gas (ISO/TC 193) and solid recovered fuels (ISO/TC 300) are outside the scope of this document. 2 Normative references There are no normative references in this document. 3? Terms? and? definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses: — ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp — IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/ 3.1 absorption phenomenon whereby atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid permeates or is dissolved by a liquid or solid (the absorbent) Note 1 to entry: Adsorption (3.3) is a surface-based process while absorption involves the whole volume (3.214) of the material. 3.2 additive material which has been intentionally introduced into the fuel feedstock (3.86) to improve quality (3.160) of fuel (3.99) (e.g. combustion or durability properties), to reduce emissions or to make production more efficient
3.3 adsorption phenomenon whereby atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid adheres to a surface whereby the process creates a film of the adsorbate on the surface of the adsorbent 3.4 agrofuel biofuel (3.27) obtained from energy crops (3.76) and/or agricultural by-products (agricultural residues) [SOURCE: FAO unified bioenergy terminology (UBET)] 3.5 air-dried in a condition, in which the solid biofuel (3.185) has been brought to equilibrium moisture content (3.132) by drying in air 3.6 angle of drain steepest angle of descent within a silo or a hopper when granular material on the slope face is on the verge of sliding Note 1 to entry: The angle of drain is measured in degrees of slope relative to the horizontal plane. Note 2 to entry: The angle of drain is typically a few degrees higher than the angle of repose (3.7). 3.7 angle of repose critical angle of repose steepest angle of descent of a stock pile when granular material on the slope face is on the verge of sliding Note 1 to entry: The angle of repose is measured in degrees of the slope of material relative to the horizontal plane. Note 2 to entry: The angle of repose is typically a few degrees lower than the angle of drain (3.6). 3.8 animal biomass biomass (3.32) obtained from livestock Note 1 to entry: Animal biomass is not a solid biofuel (3.185). The term is included for information only. 3.9 animal by-products animal residues agricultural by-products (or agricultural residues) obtained from livestock operations Note 1 to entry: It includes among others solid excreta of animals. 3.10 aquatic biomass biomass (3.32) from hydrophytic plants or hydrophytes Note 1 to entry: Hydrophytes are plants that have adapted to living in or on aquatic environments.
3.11 as determined as analysed ad reference moisture content (3.132) of the material at the moment of analysis/determination Note 1 to entry: “ad” is used as a subscript, e.g. M ad is equivalent to moisture content (3.132) at the time of determination. 3.12 as received as delivered ar calculation basis for a material in the delivery state Note 1 to entry: The abbreviation of as received is “ar”. 3.13 ash ash content total ash A mass of inorganic residue remaining after complete combustion of a fuel (3.99) under specified conditions, typically expressed as a percentage of the mass of dry matter (3.71) in fuel (3.99) Note 1 to entry: See also ash melting behaviour (3.17). Note 2 to entry: Depending on the combustion efficiency, the ash can contain combustibles. Note 3 to entry: If a complete combustion is realised, ash contains only inorganic, non-combustible components. 3.14 ash deformation temperature deformation temperature DT temperature at which first signs of melting occur Note 1 to entry: See also ash melting behaviour (3.17). Note 2 to entry: Ash deformation temperature can be seen as rounding of the edges, smoothing of surfaces, expansion of the cylinder or general changing of the cylinder shape. If the test piece starts to swell or bubble without the edges being rounded, the temperature is registered as DT (since swelling and bubbling only occur when a fraction of the ash (3.13) is melted). [SOURCE: ISO 21404:2020, 3.2, modified — First preferred term added, Notes 1 and 3 to entry deleted, new Note 1 to entry added.]