IEC 61582-2004 pdf – Radiation protection instrumentation – In vivo counters – Classification, general requirements and test procedures for portable, transportable and installed equipment.
1 Scope and object This International Standard specifies the classification, general design requirements, performance characteristics and test procedures for in vivo counting systems for detecting trace amounts of radionuclides in the bodies of persons working in nuclear power plants, laboratories and facilities handling radionuclides, and inhabitants living on territory which may be contaminated by either naturally occurring or artificial radionuclides. The purpose is to determine the dose equivalent to organs and the effective dose of internal radiation for the whole body. This standard is applicable both to equipment with spectroscopic capabilities and instruments for rapid screening for gross internal contamination only. This standard is applicable to instruments for the monitoring of certain critical organs (for example, lungs, thyroid gland, etc.) as well as instruments for monitoring the whole body. The standard applies to equipment for the measurement of the activity of gamma-emitting radionuclides in humans in order to determine the committed dose equivalent due to internal contamination in accordance with the recommendations of the ICRP 60 and ICRP 61. The requirements of the standard are applicable to the installed apparatus, to vehicle- mounted equipment and to portable instruments. However, Annex B defines the additional mechanical and environmental performance requirements and the additional testing required for transportable and portable assemblies. The general and radiological requirements of all types of in vivo counters are included in this standard. Depending on the type of instrument and the organ to be checked, measurement geometry may require the subject of the monitoring procedure to stand, sit, or lie. The detection assembly includes one or more radiation detector. Normally, these are shielded-scintillation or semi-conductor detectors. Where identification of the location of contamination is required, the detectors may be collimated.
2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. 2.1 International standards IEC 60050-393, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Chapter 393: Nuclear instrumentation – Physical phenomena and basic concepts IEC 60050-394, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Chapter 394: Nuclear instrumentation – Instruments IEC 60068-2-1, Environmental testing – Part 2: Tests. Tests A: Cold IEC 60068-2-2, Environmental testing – Part 2: Tests. Tests B: Dry heat IEC 60068-2-6: Environmental testing – Part 2: Tests – Test Fc: Vibration (sinusoidal) IEC 60068-2-14, Environmental testing – Part 2: Tests. Test N: Change of temperature. IEC 60068-2-27: Environmental testing. Part 2: Tests. Test Ea and guidance: Shock. IEC 60068-2-78, Environmental testing – Part 2-78: Tests – Test Cab: Damp heat, steady state IEC 60721-3-5: Classification of environmental conditions – Part 3-5: Classification of groups of environmental parameters and their severities – Ground vehicle installation. IEC 60721-3-7: Classification of environmental conditions – Part 3-7: Classification of groups of environmental parameters and their severities – Portable and non-stationary use. IEC 61000-4-2, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4-2: Testing and measurement techniques – Electrostatic discharge immunity test IEC 61000-4-3, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4-3: Testing and measurement techniques – Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field immunity test
4.2 Energy range classification 4.2.1 Low energy in vivo monitoring (range from 10 keV to 200 keV) These in vivo counters are used for the detection of low-energy emitters (essentially actinides such as Pu, Am, U and electron capture nuclides). Because of their minimal translocation, these radionuclides are normally located in the lung, and measurements are made preferentially in this organ. However, measurements in other organs can also be considered. 4.2.2 High energy in vivo monitoring (range from 100 keV to 3 MeV) These in vivo counters are used for the detection of high-energy emitters including activation products and fission product measurements. Because of their rapid translocation, the measurements are generally made on the whole body. However, measurements in other organs can also be considered. 4.3 Specificity of the measurement This is dependent on the number of operational staff, the number of people to be monitored, the type of nuclear accident (for post-accident monitoring), the local environment and the method of transporting the monitoring equipment to any site. 4.3.1 Type 1 – Nuclide specific, spatially specific with very low background These in vivo counters are precise low-level radiological monitoring equipment for the measurement of radioactivity as accurately and precisely as possible and are generally installed in atomic energy research institutions, atomic power plants, emergency treatment centres laboratories, universities and hospitals for research purposes.