ASME PTC PM-2010 pdf download.Performance Monitoring Guidelines for Power Plants.
The guidelines are intended to meet the user’s performance monitoring needs beyond the traditional Performance Test Code function or contract compliance of individual pieces of equipment. The guidelines are intended to be used only to the extent that they are practically feasible in power plant performance monitoring. The value of implementing the guidelines will vary significantly from plant to plant. The remaining life of the plant, size of the plant staff, and other resources already available will influence the degree to which these guidelines can be employed. The guidelines are arranged by subsection in the logical order of program development and use. Following subsection 1-3, the order of the subsections is as follows: (a) 2-1, Program Planning (b) 2-2, Instrumentation (c) 2-3, Performance Monitoring Implementation (d) 2-4, Incremental Heat Rate (e) 2-5, Performance Optimization These guidelines assume the user has a working knowledge of thermodynamics and plant performance calculations. An overview of the most useful thermodynamic concepts is included in Nonmandatory Appendix A and is intended to provide a targeted thermodynamic review for power plant performance. It is not intended to take the place of a formal course in thermodynamics. Other available guidance for performance monitoring includes short courses by consultants, universities, professional engineering societies, and industry research firms. Papers and texts recommended for further reading are referenced at the end of most subsections. 1-2.2 Purpose of Performance Monitoring (a) The purpose of performance monitoring is to reduce net production costs and/or increase facility revenues. This can be accomplished by any or all of the following:
(1) improving heat rate (2) maximizing generation (3) increasing availability (4) increasing maximum net capacity (5) reducing overall net emissions (6) optimizing maintenance activities (7) providing information to nuclear power plant operations with respect to maintaining reactor core thermal power within license limits (8) aiding in analysis of plant information with respect to environmental limitations (9) aiding in operational decision-making (b) Performance monitoring programs involve the collection and analysis of process data for various cost-benefit purposes such as (1) providing instantaneous operator feedback with regard to controllable losses (2) tracking controllable losses over long-time periods (3) establishing unit heat rate for fuel accounting, regulatory records, fleet load dispatch, and/or performance comparisons (4) determining cycle component contribution to total unit performance (5) troubleshooting air-emissions control equipment (6) diagnosing component condition for establishing overhaul schedule and scope and to improve ordering of parts requiring long lead times
(7) optimizing individual cycle component operation (8) determining input/output characteristics for economic/incremental loading In addition to the above benefits, performance monitoring provides early indication of off-normal plant conditions, allowing performance engineers time to assess and respond to events that, if left unattended or unrecognized, could lead to premature equipment degradation or equipment shutdown. Plants with effective performance monitoring programs identify trends in equipment performance earlier, have more time to plan effective responses to the information collected, and may achieve higher availability, reliability, safety, and lower production costs as a result. Effective programs make use of the engineer’s early assessments, the operator’s corrective actions, and timely maintenance activities. 1-2.3 Recognizing Safety (a) When setting up for and implementing a performance monitoring program, site safety policies— including all applicable local, state, and federal laws and regulations in addition to OSHA guidelines—should be followed. Questions to consider during preparations include the following: (1) Are plant personnel being put in dangerous situations? (2) Will the test conditions overly stress any portions of the site systems or equipment? (3) Could the stress caused by test conditions cause damage to equipment or the entire plant? (4) Are there any impacts to the surrounding community that need to be considered? (5) Will the plant be put in a situation that could result in a violation of operational safety limits or challenge nuclear safety-related systems for nuclear plants? Before starting a performance test or monitoring program, all the appropriate site personnel should be notified of any conditions that may impact site equipment. This may include the plant management, operations supervisors, maintenance personnel, and safety manager. (b) Some performance indicators can also identify potential unsafe conditions before they fully develop.