ASME BTH-1–2008 pdf download.Design of Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices.
1-4.3 Design Criteria All below-the-hook lifting devices shall be designed for specified rated loads, load geometry, Design Category (see section 2-2), and Service Class (see section 2-3). Resolution of loads into forces and stress values affecting structural members, mechanical compo- nents, and connections shall be performed by an accepted analysis method. Commentary: The original ASME B30.20 structural design requirements defined a lifting device only in terms of its rated load. Later editions established fatigue life requirements by reference to ANSI/AWS D1 4.1. ASME BTH-1 now defines the design requirements of a lifter in terms of the rated load, the Design Category, and the Service Class to better match the design of the lifter to its intended service. An extended discussion of the basis of the Design Categories and Service Classes can be found in Chapters 2 and 3 Commentaries. 1-4.4 Analysis Methods The allowable stresses and stress ranges defined in this Standard are based on the assumption of analysis by classical strength of material methods (models), although other analysis methods may be used. The anal- ysis techniques and models used by the qualified person shall accurately represent the loads, material properties, and device geometry; stress values resulting from the analysis shall be of suitable form to permit correlation with the allowable stresses defined in this Standard. Commentary: The allowable stresses defined in Chapters 3 and 4 have been developed based on the presumption that the actual stresses due to the design loads will be computed using classical methods. Such methods effectively compute average stresses acting on a structural or mechanical element. Consideration of the effects of stress concentrations is not normally required when determining the static strength of a lifter component (see Commentary for para. 3-5.2).
1-4.5 Material The design provisions of this Standard are based on the use ofcarbon, high strengthlow-alloy, or heattreated constructional alloy steel for structural members and many mechanical components. Other materials may be used, provided the margins of safety and fatigue life are equal to or greater than those required by this Standard. All ferrous and nonferrous metal used in the fabrica- tion oflifting device structural members and mechanical components shall be identified by an industry-wide or written proprietary specification. Commentary: The design provisions in Chapters 3 and 4 are based on practices and research for design using carbon, high-strength low-alloy, and heat-treated constructional alloy steels. Some of the equations pre- sented are empirical and may not be directly applicable to use with other materials. Both ferrous and nonferrous materials, including the constructional steels, may be used in the mechanical components described in Chapter 4. Industry-wide specifications are those from organiza- tions such as ASTM International (ASTM), the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). A proprietary specification is one developed by an individual manufacturer. 1-4.6 Welding All welding designs and procedures, except for the design strength of welds, shall be in accordance with the requirements of ANSI/AWS D14.1. The design strength ofwelds shall be as defined in para. 3-3.4. When conflicts exist between ANSI/AWS D14.1 and this Standard, the requirements of this Standard shall govern. Commentary: ANSI/AWS D1 4.1 is cited as the basis for weld design and welding procedures. This requirement is in agreement with CMAA #70 and those established by ASME B30.20. The allowable stresses for welds are modified in this Standard to provide the higher design factors deemed necessary for lifting devices.
1-5.1 Definitions — General ambient temperature: the temperature of the atmosphere surrounding the lifting device (para. 1-4.7). below-the-hook lifting device (lifting device, lifter): a device, other than slings, hooks, rigging hardware, and lifting attachments, used for attaching loads to a hoist (section 1-1). cycle, load: one sequence of two load reversals that define a range between maximum and minimum load (para. 1-5.1). design: the activity in which a qualified person creates devices, machines, structures, or processes to satisfy a human need (section 1-1). design factor: the ratio of the limit state stress(es) of an element to the permissible internal stress(es) created by the external force(s) that act upon the element (para. 1-6.1). fatigue: the process of progressive localized permanent material damage that may result in cracks or complete fracture after a sufficient number of load cycles (para. 1-5.2). fatigue life: the number of load cycles of a specific type and magnitude that a member sustains before failure (para. 1-4.5). hoist: a machinery unit that is used for lifting and low- ering (para. 1-5.1). lifting attachment: a load supporting device attached to the object being lifted, such as lifting lugs, padeyes, trunnions, and similar appurtenances (para. 1-5.1). load(s), applied: external force(s) acting on a structural member or machine element due to the rated load, dead load, and other forces created by the operation and geometry of the lifting device (para. 1-5.2).