ASME B31.4-2006 pdf download.Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids
400 GENERAL STATEMENTS (a) This Liquid Transportation Systems Code is one of several sections of the ASME Code for Pressure Pip- ing, B31. This Section is published as a separate docu- ment for convenience. This Code applies to hydrocarbons, liquid petroleum gas, anhydrous ammo- nia, alcohols, and carbon dioxide. Throughout this Code these systems will be referred to as Liquid Pipeline Systems. (b) The requirements of this Code are adequate for safety under conditions normally encountered in the operation of liquid pipeline systems. Requirements for all abnormal or unusual conditions are not specifically provided for, nor are all details of engineering and con- struction prescribed. All work performed within the Scope of this Code shall comply with the safety stan- dards expressed or implied. (c) The primary purpose of this Code is to establish requirements for safe design, construction, inspection, testing, operation, and maintenance of liquid pipeline systems for protection of the general public and operating company personnel as well as for reasonable protection of the piping system against vandalism and accidental damage by others and reasonable protection of the environment. (d) This Code is concerned with employee safety to the extent that it is affected by basic design, quality of materials and workmanship, and requirements for construction, inspection, testing, operation, and mainte- nance of liquid pipeline systems. Existing industrial safety regulations pertaining to work areas, safe work practices, and safety devices are not intended to be sup- planted by this Code. (e) The designer is cautioned that the Code is not a design handbook. The Code does not do away with the need for the engineer or competent engineering judg- ment. The specific design requirements of the Code usu- ally revolve around a simplified engineering approach to a subject.
g) The users of this Code are advised that in some areas legislation may establish governmental jurisdic- tion over the subject matter covered by this Code and are cautioned against making use of revisions that are less restrictive than former requirements without having assurance that they have been accepted by the proper authorities in the jurisdiction where the piping is to be installed. The Department of Transportation, United States of America, rules governing the transportation by pipeline in interstate and foreign commerce of petro- leum, petroleum products, and liquids such as anhy- drous ammonia or carbon dioxide are prescribed under Part 195 — Transportation of Hazardous Liquids by Pipeline, Title 49 — Transportation, Code of Federal Regulations. 400.1 Scope 400.1.1 This Code prescribes requirements for the design, materials, construction, assembly, inspection, and testing of piping transporting liquids such as crude oil, condensate, natural gasoline, natural gas liquids, liquefied petroleum gas, carbon dioxide, liquid alcohol, liquid anhydrous ammonia, and liquid petroleum prod- ucts between producers’ lease facilities, tank farms, nat- ural gas processing plants, refineries, stations, ammonia plants, terminals (marine, rail, and truck), and other delivery and receiving points. (See Figs. 400.1.1 and 400.1.2.)
400.2 Definitions Some of the more common terms relating to piping are defined below. 1 accidental loads: any unplanned load or combination of unplanned loads caused by human intervention or natu- ral phenomena. blunt imperfection: an imperfection characterized by smoothly contoured variations in wall thickness. 2 breakaway coupling: a component installed in the pipeline to allow the pipeline to separate when a predetermined axial load is applied to the coupling. buckle: a condition where the pipeline has undergone sufficient plastic deformation to cause permanent wrin- kling in the pipe wall or excessive cross-sectional defor- mation caused by loads acting alone or in combination with hydrostatic pressure. carbon dioxide: a fluid consisting predominantly of car- bon dioxide compressed above its critical pressure and, for the purpose of this Code, shall be considered to be a liquid. cold springing: deliberate deflection of piping, within its yield strength, to compensate for anticipated thermal expansion. column buckling: buckling of a beam or pipe under com- pressive axial load in which loads cause unstable lateral deflection, also referred to as upheaval buckling. connectors: component, except flanges, used for the pur- pose of mechanically joining two sections of pipe. defect: animperfectionofsufficientmagnitude towarrant rejection.