API TR 977-2018 pdf download.ASTM C704 Test Variability Reduced to Allow Further Optimization of Erosion-resistant Refractories for Critical Oil Refining Applications.
1 Scope 1.1 This technical report documents the results of a joint project conducted by the API CRE Subcommittee on Refractory Materials (SCRM) and the ASTM C08 Committee to improve the reproducibility of the ASTM C704/C704M, 201 5 Edition, Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Refractory Materials at Room Temperature. Erosion-resistant refractories are used in many oil refining applications, such as fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCUs), to resist the wearing effects of solids particles (5 µm to 1 00 µm is typical) circulating at elevated velocities [30 ft/s to 200 ft/s (9 m/s to 61 m/s)] in a high-temperature process environment [900 °F to 1 400 °F (482 °C to 760 °C)]. 1.2 This technical report also reviews the drivers for continuing improvement in erosion-resistant refractories and the role of ASTM C704/C704M for the selection and installation quality control of refractories used in these installations. This report documents changes made to the setup and procedures to improve the reproducibility of the test. These changes are designed to achieve this end, while providing a rough equivalency consistent with historical data before the changes were made. These results are validated by extensive international round robin and ruggedness testing and are reported herein. 2 Referenced Documents API 936, Refractory Installation Quality Control—Inspection and Testing, Monolithic Refractory Linings and Materials (201 4) API TR 978, Monolithic Refractories: Manufacture, Properties, and Selection API TR 979, Applications of Refractory Lining Materials API TR 980, Monolithic Refractories: Installation and Dryout ASTM C704/C704M 1 , Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Refractory Materials at Room Temperature (201 5). ASTM C1 036, Standard Specification for Flat Glass ASTM E691 -09, Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
3.5 catalyst A substance that causes or accelerates a chemical change without being permanently affected by the reaction. EXAMPLE The catalyst circulated between reactor and regenerator vessels in the FCC process. 3.6 compliance datasheet A list of mechanical and chemical properties for a specified refractory material that are warranted by the manufacturer to be met if and when the product is tested by the listed procedure in accordance with API Standard 936. 3.7 cyclones (of FCCUs or fluid coking units) Components, usually internal, used for inertial (momentum) separation of particulate solids from flue or product gas. Cyclones can be in multiple stages, including an inlet, barrel, cone, dust pot, dip leg, and outlet crossover, as illustrated in Figure 2.
3.9 erosion of refractories The mechanical wearing away of the surfaces of refractory bodies in service by the washing action of moving liquids or gasses such as molten slags or high-velocity particles. In the case of moving solid particles, this is more correctly termed “abrasion.” 3.10 erosion resistance (as it applies to ASTM C704/C704M test results) Volume of refractory loss, measured in cubic centimeters, after abrading the surface of a test specimen with 2.2 lb (1 000 gm) of SiC grit, in accordance with ASTM C704/C704M. NOTE The lower the amount of cubic centimeters (cm 3 ) lost, the higher the erosion (abrasion) resistance of the refractory. 3.11 erosion service Refractory application in which erosion resistance is a determining feature of lining service life. EXAMPLE Applications in transfer lines, overhead lines, cyclone linings, and deflector shields of fluid solids units. 3.12 float glass Soda-lime glass, made by floating molten glass on a bed of molten metal, which is used as a calibration standard for ASTM C704/C704M requirements. 3.13 fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) An oil refining unit consisting of reactor and regenerator vessels and interconnecting piping in which particulate catalyst is circulated at elevated temperatures to upgrade low-value feedstock to high-value products such as heating oil, gasoline components, and chemical feedstocks (see Figure 3). NOTE 1 Also known as a “cat cracker.” NOTE 2 For additional information see API TR 979.