API TR 1154-2-2016 pdf download.Sunken Oil Detection and Recovery Operational Guide.
Determine the potential for the spilled oil to sink over time. — Experience has shown that oils that initially float can sink after mixing with sediment. This can occur by two pathways. — Floating oil that mixes with sediment after being stranded on a beach can be reworked and moved seaward by wave action to sink in the adjacent nearshore waters. — Floating oil can mix with sand in the surf zone and sink, without ever stranding onshore. — Some oils are lighter than water initially but become close to or even heavier than the density of freshwater once the lighter fractions are lost by evaporation. These oils can sink as either bulk oil or oil-particle aggregates on the bottom of the water body. — Highly viscous oils can have an increased risk of sinking over time. — They can entrain a lot of free water, which can increase their density. — They tend to be stickier, which can increase the amount of sediment uptake if stranded on the shoreline or mixed with sediments in the water column, which can increase their density. 3 Select Sunken Oil Detection, Delineation, and Characterization Techniques Key points include the following. — Stand up a Sunken Oil Detection, Delineation, and Characterization Group responsible for methods evaluation as soon as it is determined that there is a risk of oil sinking. — Start mobilizing equipment as soon as possible. — Recovery should be closely coupled with detection because sunken oil can quickly become remobilized, reducing the overall effectiveness of the response. Thus, evaluation of recovery methods should start as soon as it is confirmed that the oil may sink. — Include equipment redundancy and alternatives to the preferred method(s) in the plan because of frequent breakdowns, changing conditions, and uncertainty in which methods are likely to be most successful.
5) Determine availability and mobilization time. Remember, experienced operators will greatly improve the effectiveness and timeliness of the results. 6) Involve potential qualified contractors in the planning process as they can provide valuable feedback on applications of various techniques. In discussions with potential qualified contractors, provide the site characteristics listed above. Be clear about expected turnaround time, deliverables, and what logistics will be provided. 7) The Sunken Oil Detection Group reviews the detection techniques that are most likely to be effective for the spill conditions and the qualifications of potential contractors to provide the equipment and trained operators. 8) Results of the review are documented in a draft Sunken Oil Detection Plan that is submitted to the Environmental Unit for review and compliance with federal and state permitting and consultation requirements, including: a) Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), b) Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) under the Magnuson Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act, c) Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), d) State Historic Preservation Office, e) federally recognized Native American Tribal Governments. 9) After review by the Environmental Unit and with appropriate changes, the Planning Section Chief submits the final Sunken Oil Detection Plan to the Unified Command for review and approval. 10) Once the Unified Command has approved the plan, prepare a ICS 213 resource request form and route through Finance and Logistics for approval and notification of the selected contractor(s). 11) Once approved, contact the contractors to start the planning for the survey.
4 Determine Whether There Are Feasible Sunken Oil Containment Techniques Oil usually accumulates on the bottom where currents and turbulence are low. However, sunken oil can be remobilized when turbulence increases, such as during higher-flow conditions in rivers and higher-wave conditions in nearshore areas. Containment of sunken oil may not always be feasible. If containment is being considered, use the information on site conditions in Section 3 to determine if there are feasible techniques to contain the oil under the spill conditions. Only those sunken oil containment techniques that have shown to be effective are listed in Table 4. 5 Select Sunken Oil Recovery Techniques Key points include the following. — Stand up a Sunken Oil Recovery Group responsible for methods evaluation as soon as it is determined that there is a risk of oil sinking. — Start mobilizing equipment as soon as possible. — Safety of the responders and public should remain the top priority throughout the recovery operation (reference Section 7 of this guide).