API STD 653-2009 pdf download.Tank Inspection, Repair, Alteration,and Reconstruction.
4.2.3 Floating Roofs 220.127.116.11 Areas of roof plates and pontoons exhibiting cracks or punctures shall be repaired or the affected sections replaced. Holes through roof plates shall be repaired or replaced. 18.104.22.168 Areas that are pitted shall be evaluated to determine the likelihood of through-pitting occurring prior to the next scheduled internal inspection. If so, the affected areas shall be repaired or replaced. 22.214.171.124 Roof support systems, perimeter seal systems, appurtenances such as a roof rolling ladder, anti-rotation devices, water drain systems, and venting systems shall be evaluated for needed repairs or replacements. 126.96.36.199 Guidance for the evaluation of existing floating roofs shall be based on the criteria of API 650, Annex C, for external floating roofs, and Annex H for internal floating roofs. However, upgrading to meet this standard is not mandatory. 4.2.4 Change of Service 188.8.131.52 Internal Pressure All requirements of the current applicable standard (e.g. API 650, Annex F) shall be considered in the evaluation and subsequent alterations to the tank roof and roof-to-shell junction. 184.108.40.206 External Pressure As applicable, the roof support structure (if any), and the roof-to-shell junction shall be evaluated for the effects of a design partial vacuum. The criteria outlined in API 650, Annex V shall be used. 220.127.116.11 Operation at Elevated Temperature All requirements of API 650, Annex M, shall be considered before changing the service of a tank to operation at temperatures above 200 °F. 18.104.22.168 Operation at Lower Temperature Than Original Design If the operating temperature is changed to a lower temperature than the original design, the requirements of the current applicable standard for the lower temperature shall be met. 22.214.171.124 Normal and Emergency Venting 126.96.36.199.1 Effects of change in operating conditions (including product service and pumping rates) on normal and emergency venting shall be considered.
188.8.131.52 The evaluation of the existing tank shell shall be conducted by a storage tank engineer and shall include an analysis of the shell for the intended design conditions, based on existing shell plate thickness and material. The analysis shall take into consideration all anticipated loading conditions and combinations, including pressure due to fluid static head, internal and external pressure, wind loads, seismic loads, roof live loads, nozzle loads, settlement, and attachment loads. 184.108.40.206 Shell corrosion occurs in many forms and varying degrees of severity and may result in a generally uniform loss of metal over a large surface area or in localized areas. Pitting may also occur. Each case must be treated as a unique situation and a thorough inspection conducted to determine the nature and extent of corrosion prior to developing a repair procedure. Pitting does not normally represent a significant threat to the overall structural integrity of a shell unless present in a severe form with pits in close proximity to one another. Criteria for evaluating both general corrosion and pitting are defined below. 220.127.116.11 Methods for determining the minimum shell thickness suitable for continued operation are given in 4.3.2, 4.3.3, and 4.3.4 (see Section 6 for frequency of inspection).
18.104.22.168 The rivet joint efficiencies given in Table 4.3 are conservative minimums for riveted tank construction details and are included to simplify riveted tank evaluations. However, in some cases it may be advantageous to calculate the actual rivet joint efficiencies using computational methods applicable to lap and butt type riveted joints. When this alternative of calculated joint efficiencies is used, the following maximum allowable stresses shall apply: a) for the maximum tensile stress in net section of plate, use the lesser of 0.80Y or 0.429T; use 21,000 lbf/in. 2 if T or Y is unknown; b) for the maximum shear in net section of rivet, use 16,000 lbf/in. 2 ; c) for the maximum bearing stress on plates or rivets, use 32,000 lbf/in. 2 for rivets in single shear, and 35,000 lbf/in. 2 for rivets in double shear. 22.214.171.124 For tanks with riveted joints, consideration shall be given to whether, and to what extent, corrosion affects such joints. If calculations show that excess thickness exists, this excess may be taken as corrosion allowance. 126.96.36.199 Non-liquid loads (see 188.8.131.52) shall also be considered in the analysis of riveted tanks. 4.3.5 Distortions 184.108.40.206 Shell distortions include out-of-roundness, buckled areas, flat spots, and peaking and banding at welded joints. 220.127.116.11 Shell distortions can be caused by many conditions such as foundation settlement, over- or under- pressuring, high wind, poor shell fabrication, or repair techniques, and so forth. 18.104.22.168 Shell distortions shall be evaluated on an individual basis to determine if specific conditions are considered acceptable for continuing tank service and/or the extent of corrective action. 4.3.6 Flaws Flaws such as cracks or laminations shall be thoroughly examined and evaluated to determine their nature and extent and need for repair. If a repair is needed, a repair procedure shall be developed and implemented.