API STD 618-2010 pdf download.Reciprocating Compressors for Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas Industry Services.
This standard is based on the accumulated knowledge and experience of manufacturers and users of reciprocating compressors. The objective of this publication is to provide a purchase specification to facilitate the procurement and manufacture of reciprocating compressors for use in petroleum, chemical, and gas industry services. The primary purpose of this standard is to establish minimum requirements. Energy conservation is of concern and has become increasingly important in all aspects of equipment design, application, and operation. Thus, innovative energy-conserving approaches should be aggressively pursued by the manufacturer and the user during these steps. Alternative approaches that may result in improved energy utilization should be thoroughly investigated and brought forth. This is especially true of new equipment proposals since the evaluation of purchase options will be based increasingly on total life costs as opposed to acquisition cost alone. Equipment manufacturers, in particular, are encouraged to suggest alternatives to those specified when such approaches achieve improved energy effectiveness and reduced total life costs without the sacrifice of safety or reliability. This standard requires the purchaser to specify certain details and features. Although it is recognized that the purchaser may desire to modify, delete, or amplify sections of this standard, it is strongly recommended that such modifications, deletions, and amplifications be made by supplementing this standard, rather than by rewriting or incorporating sections thereof into another standard. For effective use of this standard and ease of reference to the text, the use of the data sheets in Annex A is recommended. Users of this standard should be aware that further or differing requirements may be needed for individual applications. This standard is not intended to inhibit a vendor from offering, or the purchaser from accepting, alternative equipment or engineering solutions for the individual application.
1 Scope This standard covers the minimum requirements for reciprocating compressors and their drivers for use in petroleum, chemical, and gas industry services for handling process air or gas with either lubricated or non-lubricated cylinders. Compressors covered by this standard are low to moderate speed machines. Also included are related lubrication systems, controls, instrumentation, intercoolers, aftercoolers, pulsation suppression devices, and other auxiliary equipment. Compressors not covered by this standard are (a) integral gas-engine-driven compressors, (b) compressors with single-acting trunk-type (automotive-type) pistons that also serve as crossheads, and (c) either plant or instrument-air compressors that discharge at a gauge pressure of 9 bar (125 psig) or below. Note 1: Requirements for packaged high-speed reciprocating compressors for oil and gas production services are covered in ISO 13631. Note 2: A bullet (•) at the beginning of a clause indicates that either a decision is required or further information is to be provided by the purchaser. This information should be indicated on the data sheets (see Annex A); otherwise it should be stated in the quotation request (inquiry) or in the order. 2 Normative References 2.1 The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. API RP 500 Classification of Locations for Electrical Installation at Petroleum Facilities Classified as Class I, Division 1 and Division 2 Std 541 Form-wound Squirrel-cage Induction Motors—500 Horsepower and Larger Std 546 Brushless Synchronous Machines—500 kVA and Larger Std 611 General Purpose Steam Turbines for Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services Std 612 Petroleum, Petrochemical and Natural Gas Industries—Steam Turbines—Special-purpose Applications
3 Definitions of Terms For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply: 3.1 acoustic simulation: The process whereby the one-dimensional acoustic characteristics of fluids and the influence of the reciprocating compressor dynamic flow on these characteristics are modeled, taking into account the fluid properties and the geometry of the compressor and the connected vessels and piping. Note: The model is mathematically based upon the governing differential equations (motion, continuity, etc.). The simulation should allow for determination of pressure/flow modulations at any point in the piping model resulting from any generalized compressor excitation (see 3.1, 3.4, 3.9, 3.28, 3.39, and 3.57). 3.2 active analysis: A portion of the acoustic simulation in which the pressure pulsation amplitudes, due to imposed compressor operation for the anticipated loading, speed range, and state conditions, are simulated (see 3.1). 3.3 alarm point: A preset value of a measured parameter at which an alarm is actuated to warn of a condition that requires corrective action. 3.4 analog simulation: A method using electrical components (inductances, capacitances, resistances and current supply devices) to achieve the acoustic simulation (see 3.1).