API Spec 20B-2013 pdf download.Open Die Shaped Forgings for Use in the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry.
1 Scope 1.1 Purpose This API standard specifies requirements for the qualification and production of open die shaped forgings for use in API service components in the petroleum and natural gas industries when referenced by an applicable equipment standard or otherwise specified as a requirement for compliance. 1.2 Applicability This API standard is applicable to equipment used in the oil and natural gas industries where service conditions warrant the use of individually shaped open die forgings, including rolled rings. Examples include pressure containing or load bearing components. Forged bar, rolled bar, and forgings from which multiple parts are removed are beyond the scope of this specification. 1.3 Forging Specification Levels (FSL) This API standard establishes requirements for four forging specification levels (FSL). These four FSL designations define different levels of forged product technical, quality and qualification requirements. 2 Normative References The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. API Specification 6A, Twentieth Edition, Specification for Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment ASTM A370 1 , Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products ASTM A388/A388M, Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of Steel Forgings ASTM A604, Standard Practice for Macroetch Testing of Consumable Electrode Remelted Steel Bars and Billets ASTM E10, Standard Test Method for Brinell Hardness Test of Metallic Materials ASTM E18, Standard Test Method for Rockwell Hardness Test of Metallic Materials ASTM E45, Standard Test Method for Determining the Inclusion Content of Steel ASTM E110, Standard Test Method for Indentation Hardness of Metallic Materials by Portable Hardness Testers
3 Terms and Definitions For the purposes of this document, the following definitions apply. 3.1 Terms and Definitions 3.1.1 acceptance criteria Defined limits placed on characteristics of materials, processes, products, or services. 3.1.2 as-forged The condition of a forging as it leaves the forging operation without any subsequent operations. 3.1.3 bloom/billet A semi-finished hot rolled, forged or extruded product, with a square, rectangular, or round cross section. NOTE Bloom and billet can be used interchangeably. 3.1.4 calibration Comparison and adjustment to a standard of known accuracy. 3.1.5 crop/cropping Removal of the end(s) of ingot, billet, or bloom that may contain primary pipe or other defects. 3.1.6 grain flow Fiber-like lines appearing on polished and etched sections of forgings caused by orientation of the constituents of the metal in the direction of working during forging. 3.1.7 heat Material originating from a final melt, or for remelted alloys, the material originating from a single remelted ingot.
4.2 Qualification Forging 4.2.1 A qualification forging shall be produced, tested and evaluated by the forging supplier in order to establish qualification for a range of products listed in Table 1. Forgings shall be produced in accordance with a manufacturing procedure specification, as specified in 5.3. The material group of the qualification forging shall be in accordance with Table 2. Qualification forgings are to be in their completed forged form, with the addition of any specified rough machining and full heat treatment to establish the final mechanical properties required of the finished product. Qualification forgings shall be produced in accordance with the requirements of Section 4, Section 5, and the forging supplier’s written specification that defines acceptance criteria. 4.2.2 A forging qualified to a specific FSL also qualifies lower FSLs (e.g. FSL-4 qualifies FSL-3, FSL-2, and FSL-1 forgings) within the limitations of Section 4.4. 4.2.3 Repair welding is prohibited on the qualification forging. 4.3 Qualification Forging Evaluation 4.3.1 Visual Examination 18.104.22.168 Visual inspection of the forging shall be performed in accordance with the forging supplier’s procedures for cracks, laps, seams and other anomalies. Results shall be documented and the material shall be dispositioned. 22.214.171.124 Photographs of the qualification forging in the as forged condition shall be taken to document the configuration and general appearance.