API RP 99-2014 pdf download.Flash Fire Risk Assessment for the Upstream Oil and Gas Industry.
1 Scope 1.1 General This recommended practice (RP) provides guidance for the upstream oil and gas industry on hazard identification and risk assessment exercises to assess and mitigate the risk of human injury caused by exposure to a flash fire. The scope of this document is limited to personnel exposed to the risk of hydrocarbon based flash fires in the upstream Exploration and Production sector of the oil and gas industry. In general, this group includes oil and gas production, drilling, well bore (well servicing) operations, and gas processing prior to interstate pipeline transportation. 1.2 Conditions of Applicability This RP focuses on flash fires that result from the unexpected ignition of hydrocarbon vapors. Emergency preparedness (e.g. firefighting, hazmat response) for exposure to fire event greater than a flash fire is excluded from this RP and is addressed by NFPA and other standards organizations. Arc flash, as discussed in NFPA 70E and its other related standards, are outside the scope of this document. Maintenance, care, and limitation of various fire resistant clothing (FRC) materials are outside the scope of this document. These items are addressed by the manufacturer and clothing-related standards. 2 Terms, Definitions, Acronyms, and Abbreviations 2.1 Terms and Definitions For the purposes of this document, the following definitions apply. 2.1.1 Class I, Division 1 location A location in which ignitable concentrations of flammable gases or vapors are expected to exist under normal operating conditions or in which faulty operation of equipment or processes might simultaneously release flammable gases or vapors and also cause failure of electrical equipment. 2.1.2 Class I, Division 2 location A location in which flammable gases or vapors may be present but normally are confined within closed systems; are prevented from accumulating by adequate ventilation; 2.1.5 fire resistant clothing FRC Apparel designed by the manufacturer to not increase the extent of injury experienced by the wearer when exposed to a hydrocarbon flash fire. NOTE The acronym has been defined in the following ways by various industry and regulatory organizations (e.g. NFPA, CEN, CAN/CGSB, ISO, ASTM, etc.) as flame resistant clothing, fire retardant clothing, fire resistive clothing, and flame retardant clothing. 2.1.6 flash fire A fire that spreads rapidly by means of a brief flame front through a diffuse fuel, such as gas or the vapors of an ignitable liquid, without the production of damaging pressure. 2.1.7 Greenfield site A well site where neither oil nor gas has been brought to the surface from the formation. A production or processing facility where hydrocarbons have never been delivered via pipeline, flow line, tank truck, or processing equipment. NOTE Water disposal sites are not Greenfield sites. 2.1.8 loss of containment The unplanned or uncontrolled release of flammable hydrocarbon materials to the work environment. 2.1.9 lower explosive limit LEL The minimum concentration of flammable gas or vapor that supports self-propagating flame when mixed with air (oxygen) and ignited. 2.1.10 personal protective equipment PPE Clothing and equipment designed to protect personnel from workplace injuries or illnesses resulting from contact with chemical, radiological, physical, electrical, mechanical, or other workplace hazards. 2.1.11 simultaneous operations SimOps When two or more activities or process operations are being performed concurrently in close proximity.
4 4.1 Hazard Evaluation General Where potential flash fire hazards exist, employers shall conduct a risk assessment and utilize controls to mitigate the risk of flash fire injury. See Section 6 (“Mitigation”) and Section 7 (“General FRC Guidelines”). 4.2 Hazard Identification This RP recognizes that hazard identification is done prior to risk assessment. The hazard assessment process should include an identification of fuel sources, ignition sources, and job tasks. Risk assessments may take many forms, such as those included in Section 5 and the annexes. These tools are provided as a resource, blending hazard identification steps with risk assessment and mitigation. These worksheets are not intended to replace existing safe work practices that have been implemented. Employers may rely on established methods to identify the risk of flash fire such as job hazard analysis, job safety analysis, or other risk assessment techniques. 4.3 Simultaneous Operations (SimOps) SimOps is a regular occurrence in the upstream Exploration and Production sector of the oil and gas industry and should be a consideration when determining the potential risk for flash fire. When SimOps occur, the operation with the highest flash fire risk level of all affected operations shall determine if FRC is utilized for the entire SimOps activity.