API RP 754-2010 pdf download.Process Safety Performance Indicators for the Refining and Petrochemical Industries.
1.3 Guiding Principles Performance indicators identified in this recommended practice are based on the following guiding principles. — Indicators should drive process safety performance improvement and learning. — Indicators should be relatively easy to implement and easily understood by all stakeholders (e.g. workers and the public). — Indicators should be statistically valid at one or more of the following levels: industry, Company, and site. Statistical validity requires a consistent definition, a minimum data set size, a normalization factor, and a relatively consistent reporting pool. — Indicators should be appropriate for industry, Company, or site level benchmarking. 1.4 Introduction Process safety incidents are rarely caused by a single catastrophic failure, but rather by multiple events or failures that coincide. This relationship between simultaneous or sequential failures of multiple systems was originally proposed by British psychologist James T. Reason  in 1990 and is illustrated by the “Swiss Cheese Model.” In the Swiss Cheese Model, hazards are contained by multiple protective barriers each of which may have weaknesses or “holes.” When the holes align, the hazard is released resulting in the potential for harm. Christopher A. Hart in 2003  represented Reason’s model as a set of spinning disks with variable size holes. This representation suggests that the relationship between the hazard and the barriers is dynamic, with the size and type of weakness in each barrier constantly changing, and the alignment of the holes constantly shifting. Figure 1 depicts both models. In both models, barriers can be active, passive, or administrative/procedural. Holes can be latent, incipient, or actively opened by people.
2 Normative References The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. ANSI/API Standard 521/ISO 23251, Guide for Pressure-relieving and Depressuring Systems.  AiChE, Center for Chemical Process Safety 2 , Process Safety Leading and Lagging Metrics, Appendix B: Additional Information Regarding UN Dangerous Goods Classification and Listing of Chemicals, 2008.  UNECE 3 , ECE/TRANS/202, Vol. I and II (“ADR 2009”), European Agreement Concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR).  U.S. DOT 4 , 49 CFR, Part 172, Subpart B—Table of Hazardous Materials and Special Provisions.  3 Terms, Definitions, Acronyms, and Abbreviations 3.1 Terms and Definitions For the purposes of this recommended practice, the following definitions apply. 3.1.1 acids/bases, moderate Substances with pH ≥ 1 and < 2, or pH > 11.5 and ≤ 12.5, or more precisely, substances that cause full thickness destruction of intact skin tissue within an observation period up to 14 days starting after the exposure time of 60 minutes or less, but greater than three minutes, consistent with Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) Skin Corrosion Category 1B.  3.1.2 acids/bases, strong Substances with pH < 1 or > 12.5, or more precisely, substances that cause full thickness destruction of intact skin tissue within an observation period up to 60 minutes starting after the exposure time of three minutes or less, consistent with GHS Skin Corrosion Category 1A.  3.1.3 Company When designated with a capital C or “the Company”, refers to the operating Company in the refining and petrochemical industries, its divisions, or its consolidated affiliates.
3.1.6 contractor and subcontractor Any individual not on the Company payroll, whose exposure hours, injuries, and illnesses occur on site. 3.1.7 days away from work injury Work-related injuries that result in the employee being away from work for at least one calendar day after the day of the injury as determined by a physician or other licensed health professional. This is an abridged version of the definition used to report days away from work injuries for OSHA.  3.1.8 deflagration vent An opening in a vessel or duct that prevents failure of the vessel or duct due to overpressure. The opening is covered by a pressure-relieving cover (e.g. rupture disk, explosion disk, or hatch). 3.1.9 destructive device A flare, scrubber, incinerator, quench drum, or other similar device used to mitigate the potential consequences of a PRD release. 3.1.10 direct cost Cost of repairs or replacement, cleanup, material disposal, environmental remediation and emergency response. Direct cost does not include indirect costs, such as business opportunity, business interruption and feedstock/product losses, loss of profits due to equipment outages, costs of obtaining or operating temporary facilities, or costs of obtaining replacement products to meet customer demand. Direct cost does not include the cost of the failed component leading to LOPC, if the component is not further damaged by the fire or explosion.