API RP 65-3-2021 pdf download

API RP 65-3-2021 pdf download

API RP 65-3-2021 pdf download.Wellbore Plugging and Abandonment.
1 Scope 1.1 General Considerations This document provides guidance for the design, placement, and verification of cement plugs in wells to be temporarily or permanently abandoned, as well as remediation and verification of annular barriers. Wells temporarily abandoned (suspended) are intended to be re-entered in the future. The placement of barriers may depend on whether the well is to be temporarily or permanently abandoned. The information in this document is general in nature. Wellbore plugging and abandonment practices will vary with regulatory requirements, well type, and purpose. Sound engineering and operational practices should be applied to each wellbore plugging operation. Cement plug lengths are not considered in this document. 1.2 Well Construction and Abandonment Practices This document assumes that generally accepted well construction practices were followed during the installation of the cemented casings. As specified in API 65-2, properly designed casing strings cemented in place provide multiple barriers during well operations. Abandonment barriers may include those placed: — across any exposed casing/liner shoe; — in open hole; — above perforated intervals in cased hole; — at points where casing has been removed; — across liner tops; — above and below usable water sources; — above or below hydrocarbon bearing zones or other potential flow zones; — at the surface or mudline. See Figure 1 for an example of a permanent well abandonment.
2 Normative References The following referenced document is indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document applies (including any amendments/addenda/errata). API Standard 65-2, Isolating Potential Flow Zones During Well Construction For a listing of other documents associated with this publication, refer to the Bibliography. 2.1 Use of SI and U.S. Customary Units This document contains derived metric units (SI) and U.S. customary oilfield units. For the purposes of this document, the conversion between the systems is not exact and has been intentionally rounded to allow for ease of use in calibration and measurement. 3 Terms and Definitions, Symbols, and Abbreviations 3.1 Terms and Definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1.1 barrier A component or practice that, if properly installed, contributes to the total system reliability by preventing liquid or gas flow. 3.1.2 bridge plug A mechanical device, usually equipped with elastomer elements, that acts as a temporary barrier. NOTE 1 A pumpable sealant may be placed below it before being placed in the wellbore, or above it after being activated. NOTE 2 It can be placed in the wellbore using a workstring, coiled tubing, or wireline. 3.1.3 cement Any material or combination of materials fluidized and pumped into the well to provide a seal. NOTE This includes pumpable sealants containing Portland cement, pozzolan blends, blast furnace slag blends, phosphate cement, hardening ceramics, resins, geo-polymers or other appropriate materials. 3.1.4 coiled tubing A long, continuous length of pipe wound on a spool. NOTE The pipe is straightened prior to pushing into a wellbore and rewound to coil the pipe back onto the storage spool pulling out of the wellbore. 3.1.5 dump bailer A wireline or slickline tool used to place small volumes of cement in a wellbore.
4 Applications and Operating Environment 4.1 Formation Types Potential Flow Zones Potential flow zones are any formations in a well where flow is possible when the wellbore pressure is less than the pore pressure (e.g., hydrocarbon zones, shallow gas, or overpressurized water zones that may be natural or induced). Isolation of these zones shall be the primary objective of wellbore plugging and abandonment unless cross flow is deemed acceptable. Prior to permanent abandonment operations, all potential flow zones in the wellbore shall be identified. Usable Water Sources Subsurface waters (aquifers) suitable for consumption by humans or animals with or without treatment are classified as usable water sources. These formation types shall be protected from contamination by fluid migration or surface water runoff. Injection and Depleted Zones Injection or disposal zones are geological formations whose strata are isolated from overlying usable water sources by an impermeable layer into which fluids are injected for disposal or charging. These formations may or may not be classified as depleted zones. Depleted zones are formations whose reservoir pressures are less than the adjacent formation pressures as a result of production operations. These zones may prevent plug stability during placement. Both injection and depleted zones shall be isolated during abandonment unless cross flow is deemed acceptable. 4.2 Positions Barrier Installation During the drilling of a well, the natural geologic seals to overpressured formations are penetrated by the wellbore. During well abandonment, the placement of a barrier prevents the flow of formation fluids to surface or seabed, cross flow between permeable formations, and contamination of usable water sources. Since the initial geologic state was a continuous seal, well abandonment is typically performed by creating a continuous barrier across the wellbore at the natural seal location.

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