API RP 5L1-2015 pdf download.Recommended Practice for Railroad Transportation of Line Pipe.
4 General Requirements (for All Pipe Sizes 2 3 / 8 and Larger) 4.1 Railcar Condition Cars used to ship pipe shall be reasonably free of all foreign materials, particularly those of such size and hardness that could damage pipe during shipment by abrasion or that could contribute to movement of the pipe in the car during shipping or humping. Cars that have metallic protrusions on the bed or sides (such as bent or torn parts) that would require excessive thickness of bearing strips or of side stakes to prevent contact of the protrusion with the pipe during shipment shall not be used. 4.2 Bearing Strips and Blocking Metallic bearing strips are prohibited. Side protection shall be provided for pipe shipped in gondola cars where the pipe may contact the sides of the car. Blocking, where required because of uneven car sides, should be introduced between car sides and stakes, and firmly attached to stakes. The thickness of the bearing strips shall be sufficient to prevent the pipe from touching the bed or protrusions thereon, but in no case less than 2 in. (50 mm) nominal thickness and 4 in. (100 mm) nominal width. Furthermore, the following situations shall require 2 in. (50 mm) nominal thickness and 6 in. (150 mm) nominal width for bearing strips, except where AAR stipulates greater dimensions: pipe size ≥ 6 floating loads, and pipe size ≥ 20 in. loads other than floating. Strip height shall not exceed strip width. A minimum of four bearing strips shall be used, and an even number of bearing strips should be used for each pipe stack. Bearing strips shall be evenly spaced. The bearing strips shall be aligned so that the load on individual bearing members is not excessive. All intermediate bearing members should be level with respect to the end bearing members within approximately 1 / 2 in. for pipe of size 6 5 / 8 to size 16 exclusive, and within approximately 1 / 4 in. for pipe of sizes 1 6 and larger or for any pipe having a D/t ratio of 50 or more.
4.5 Pipe with Filler Metal Weld Seams Pipe with filler metal weld seams (SAW and GMAW) shall be positioned or padded in such a manner that the weld does not contact either the blocking or the adjacent pipe. When horizontal stripping is used for straight filler metal weld seam pipe (SAW and GMAW), the weld seam shall be positioned at 45°, ± 5°, from vertical. Pipe with a straight filler metal weld seam (SAW and GMAW) shall be positioned with the seam at 0 ° or 1 80 ° (in other words, 12 or 6 o’clock position) when nested, in order to prevent pipe-to-weld seam contact. Furthermore, weld seams should be oriented to avoid contact with steel banding straps. 4.6 End Protection (Gondolas) If any of the pipe ends are closer than 5 ft (1 .5 m) to the end of the car, a minimum of 1 in. (25 mm) nominal thickness rough lumber, or its equivalent, shall be securely attached to the end of the car to prevent the pipe ends from contacting the end gates. Permanently wood-lined end gates are considered suitable for end protection. At the time of loading, a minimum clearance of 1 ft (0.3 m) shall be provided between the end gates and each end of the pipe to facilitate handling. 4.7 Banding and Tying-down Emphasis should be placed on minimizing load shifting and subsequent damage to the pipe by unitizing the entire load, or specific portions thereof, with steel bands of at least 1 in. (25 mm) width. The bands should be properly spaced, of sufficient number, and properly tensioned to reduce the tendency of the pipe to move separately from the unitized load itself. While tie-down bands may be advantageous for some loads, rail handling or humping may loosen or break tie-down bands. Where flat tie-down bands are used, they shall have a minimum width of 1 in. (25 mm). Where wire rope or chains are used, adequate padding shall be used at points of contact with pipe.