API RP 2FB-2006 pdf download.Recommended Practice for the Design of Offshore Facilities Against Fire and Blast Loading.
1 API R ECOMMENDED P RACTICE 2FB Safety Critical Element: Any component part of structure, equipment, plant or system whose failure could cause a major accident. Specific Heat: The amount of heat, measured in Joules, required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of a substance by one degree C. Units are Joules/kg/ºC. Surface Emissive Power (SEP): The heat radiated outwards from a flame per unit surface area of the flame. Units are kW/m 2 . Survival: For purposes of fire and blast consideration, survival means demonstration that at least one escape route and the temporary refuge or safe mustering area are maintained for a sufficient period of time to allow platform evacuation and emergency response procedure, in accordance with the safety philosophy defined by the owner/operator of the platform. Temporary Refuge (TR) or Safe Mustering Area: An area of the platform that will enable the occupants to survive the defined fire or blast event. The area must also be safely accessible by personnel not in the immediate vicinity of the event and provide access to the primary escape route. Unmanned Platform: A platform upon which persons may be employed at any one time, but upon which no living accommodations or quarters are provided. Utilization Ratio: The ratio of actual stress to allowable stress. AISC: American Institute of Steel Construction API: American Petroleum Institute ASCE: American Society of Civil Engineers ASTM: American Society of Testing and Materials AWS: American Welding Society ISO: International Organization for Standardization NFPA: National Fire Protection Association SFPE: Society of Fire Protection Engineers SCI: Steel Construction Institute SCE: Safety Critical Element General This document provides guidelines and recommended practice for the satisfactory design of offshore structures against fire and blast loading. For guidelines and recommended practice and other requirements relating to planning, designing and constructing offshore structures relevant API recomm For low-likelihood events, installations and compartments will have a low equipment count. The low frequency of intervention will contribute to low likelihood of events from the standpoint of maintenance risk. 2.3 NOMINAL LOADS Nominal loads for fires have been in use since the publication of the Interim Guidance Notes  in 1993, and have been updated and extended in more recent references . For fires, these take the form of recommended radiation levels and flame temperatures for pool and jet fires in confined and open conditions. Jet fires may give rise to radiation levels up to 300 kW/m 2 in open conditions whereas in confined situations radiation levels may rise to 400 kW/m 2 where re-circulation of the flow occurs. Pool fires generally give rise to lower radiation levels of the order of 100-160 kW/m 2 . For blast considerations, the nominal loads are space averaged peak blast overpressures determined for specific platform types from a set of data. The details are provided in the section C6.3 of the Commentary. If available and considered suitable for use for the particular facility, these nominal loads may be used for the assessment of the platform. The sensitivity of the available data set will determine whether assessment using nominal load cases should be restricted to preliminary design only. Nominal loads are intended for use at an early project phase where Safety input is most effective and detailed geometry of the layout, particularly small bore pipe work, is not known. They may be applied as static loads if this can be justified. Each element of the structure will respond according to its natural period and resistance. An alternative method presently under development , the response spectrum method takes into account variations in natural periods and allowable plastic deformations (ductilities). The method is briefly described in the section C6.3 of the Commentary.