API RP 2611-2011 pdf download.Terminal Piping Inspection— Inspection of In-Service Terminal Piping Systems.
4.2 Authorized Piping Inspector Responsibilities When inspections, repairs, or alterations are being conducted on piping systems, an authorized piping inspector (see Annex A) shall be responsible to the Owner/User for determining that repair, inspection, examination, and testing requirements are met, and shall be directly involved in the inspection activities. The piping inspector may be assisted in performing visual inspections by other properly trained and qualified individuals, who may or may not be authorized piping inspectors. All examination results must be documented, evaluated, and accepted by the authorized piping inspector. 4.2.1 Owner/User An Owner/User organization shall be responsible for developing, documenting, implementing, executing, and assessing piping inspection protocols and procedures that will meet the requirements of this Standard. These protocols and procedures should be contained in a quality assurance inspection manual or in an accessible electronic format and shall include instruction on the following topics: a) documenting and maintaining inspection and quality assurance procedures; b) documenting and reporting inspection and test results; c) corrective action for unacceptable inspection and test results; d) internal auditing for compliance with the written procedures; e) review and approval of drawings, design calculations, and specifications for repairs, alterations, and reratings; f) ensuring that all jurisdictional requirements for piping inspection, repairs, alterations, and rerating are continuously met; g) controls which ensure that only qualified welders and procedures are used for all repairs and alterations; h) controls which ensure that only qualified nondestructive examination (NDE) personnel and procedures are utilized; i) controls necessary so that only materials conforming to the applicable codes are utilized for repairs and alterations; j) internal auditing requirements for the quality control system for pressure-relieving devices;
4.2.3 Repair Organization The repair organization shall be responsible to the Owner/User and shall provide the materials, equipment, quality control, and workmanship necessary to maintain and repair the piping systems. 4.2.4 Other Personnel Operating, maintenance, or other personnel employed by or contracted by the Owner/User who has special knowledge or expertise related to particular piping systems shall be responsible for promptly making the inspector or piping engineer aware of any unusual conditions that may have developed and for providing other assistance, where appropriate. 5 Inspection of Piping 5.1 General Terminal piping inspection can be categorized into inspection for above ground piping and below ground piping. However, there are numerous inspection techniques that are shared between both inspection categories. 5.2 General Principles Inspection of above ground piping in terminals is relatively simple compared to inspection of chemical or refinery piping. Among the reasons for this are the relative non-corrosiveness of the products, ambient operating temperature, and relatively low operating pressure. Furthermore, the incidents experienced with terminal piping indicate that the majority of occurrences result in relatively small leaks. Sudden and/or catastrophic releases are rare. Because the maximum corrosion rates are well known for product-side corrosion, the age of the piping system is a good indicator of the interior condition of the piping system. Terminal operators will want to establish approximate internal and external corrosion rates so that an appropriate inspection interval can be established. When inspecting piping the inspector must be aware that entrained water, when present, is typically more corrosive than hydrocarbons and will tend to phase separate in low flow or stagnant sections. Often the most severe internal damage is apparent in sections of piping where water can accumulate over long periods of time such as at deadlegs. To mitigate these concerns in existing systems a design review may be initiated to correct any unnecessary deadlegs or low points through redesign. Areas of concern that cannot be rectified through redesign will need to be marked and monitored through periodic wall thickness testing. Damage caused by external corrosion, except for corrosion under insulation (CUI), is most easily assessed by visual inspection. An important part of any terminal piping inspection program is the visual inspection component. Small leaks from corrosion, failing gaskets, threaded components or seals are usually detected by observing evidence of stains or by presence of fluid. Frequent walks along a piping system by an operator or other person who is familiar with the piping system are powerful indicators of developing problems and perhaps the best “leak detection system”. Therefore, leak detection for above ground piping systems is generally not warranted. A formal and documented visual inspection should be periodically conducted in accordance with the guidelines set forth in 6.1, 6.2, and 7.5 of this document. Annex B provides a reference table for the inspection activities discussed in this document.