API RP 2201-2010 pdf download.Safe Hot Tapping Practices in the Petroleum and Petrochemical Industries.
1.5.1 Competent Person The concept of relying on the experience and judgement of a “competent person” is used in this document as it is in many standards and regulations. In street terms this means “some- one who knows enough to make the right decisions to do a job properly”. One definition [from 1 926.32(f) ] says a com- petent person “means one who is capable of identifying exist- ing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt correc- tive measures to eliminate them.”. In other standards the requirements to qualify as a “competent person” are expanded to include training in subject specific courses defined by OSHA or EPA. This document does not specify training requirements or courses.
1.5.2 Qualified Person The concept of “qualified person” implies knowledge or education (which may be technical) beyond, or different from, that of a competent person. One definition describes a qualified person as “one who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by exten- sive knowledge, training and experience, has successfully demonstrated ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.” For craft personnel, an OSHA formal interpretation puts the burden on the employer, stating “OSHA does not require tests to assess craft technical skills and knowledge. It is the responsibility of the employer to assure that their employees possess the skills and knowledge necessary to perform their tasks safely.” Facility or regulatory requirements may require welders to perform certain tests to qualify as a “code welder,” but the mandatory need for this qualification may be restricted to work on specific equipment; it may, or may not, be relevant to hot tap work depending on the equipment being hot tapped. For engineers a “qualified person” may be characterized as having relevant education, experience and specialized knowl- edge for the specific subject or activity.
3.5 exposure limit: For chemical agents are a measure of the maximum airborne concentration limits for toxic sub- stances to which workers may be exposed without protection (for example, respirators). Exposure limits are usually expressed in parts per million or milligrams per cubic meter for a defined period of time. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) from the manufacturer or supplier of the material should list exposure limits. 3.6 hot tapping: The technique of attaching a mechanical or welded branch fitting to piping or equipment in service, and creating an opening in that piping or equipment by drilling or cutting a portion of the piping or equipment within the attached fitting. 3.7 hot work: An operation that can produce heat from flame, spark or other source of ignition with sufficient energy to ignite flammable vapors, gases, or dust. Hot work includes such things as electric arc and gas welding, chipping, flaming, grinding, cutting, abrasive blasting, brazing and soldering. Spe- cial procedures and permits are required when hot work is to be performed in certain areas. (Appendix D of ANSI Z49.1 lists more than 90 welding and allied processes that can qualify as “hot work”). 3.8 hydrogen blister: Bulge in steel caused by high pressure molecular hydrogen trapped at an internal flaw within steel. 3.9 IDLH: The NIOSH traditional definition is the maximum concentration of an air contaminant from which one could escape within 30 min. without a respirator and without experi- encing any escape-impairing or irreversible health effects. 3.10 inerting: The process of eliminating the potential for a flammable atmosphere by using an inert gas such as nitro- gen, carbon dioxide or steam (water vapor) to displace oxy- gen required for ignition.