API RP 2201-2003 pdf download

API RP 2201-2003 pdf download

API RP 2201-2003 pdf download.Safe Hot Tapping Practices in the Petroleum and Petrochemical Industries.
1.1 PURPOSE This publication provides information to assist in safely conducting hot tapping operations on equipment in service in the petroleum and petrochemical industries. No document can address all situations nor answer all potential questions. However, the understanding of potential hazards, and applica- tion of this knowledge, can help reduce the probability and severity of incidents. 1.2 SCOPE Hot tapping is the technique of attaching a welded branch fitting to piping or equipment in service, and then creating an opening in that piping or equipment by drilling or cutting a portion of the piping or equipment within the attached fitting. (In certain specific situations a bolted or mechanical fitting may be used. This approach is not common practice in oil processing and petrochemical facilities and this document does not address any considerations unique to “hot tapping without welding”.) Hot tapping is usually performed when it is not feasible, or is impractical, to take the equipment or pip- ing out of service, or to purge or clean it by conventional methods. With proper review to determine that a hot tap is appropriate, and development and conformance to job-spe- cific procedures, many hot tap connections have been safely made without interfering with the process operation. This publication covers the safety aspects to be considered before and during hot tapping on in-service piping or equip- ment. It provides: · aids to recognize, review, and address safety concerns; · a review of potential hot tapping concerns based on industry experience; · guidance on planning hot taps; · application of “hazard versus risk” concepts applied to hot tapping; · elements to consider during the hot tap process from job analysis through completion; · suggestions on “what to do if things go wrong.” This publication is not: · a substitute for job-specific planning; The hot tap approach described in this publication applies to piping and equipment fabricated from ferritic and austen- itic steel. Other materials, such as aluminum, copper, plastic, and cast iron may be unsuitable for hot tapping or welding or may require special procedures. Hot tapping is a “change” subject to review based on facil- ity “management of change” processes or procedures. 1.3 RETROACTIVITY Any provisions in this publication related to design are intended for reference when designing new facilities or when considering major revisions or expansions, or establishing new programs. It is not intended that any recommendations in this publication be applied retroactively to work performed at existing facilities. This recommended practice should provide useful guidance when there is a desire or need to review pro- cedures, programs or facilities. 1.4 CONCEPT OF HAZARD VS. RISK Hazards are properties of materials with the inherent abil- ity to cause harm. Flammability, toxicity, corrosivity, stored chemical or mechanical energy all are hazards associated with various industrial materials. Risk requires exposure. A hot surface or material can cause thermal skin burns or a cor- rosive acid can cause chemical skin burns, but these can occur only if there is contact exposure to skin. There is no risk when there is no potential for exposure. Determining the level of risk involves estimating the prob- ability and severity of exposure that could lead to harm. While the preceding examples relate hazards to the risk to people, the same principles are valid for evaluating property risk. For instance, hydrocarbon vapors in a flammable mix- ture with air can ignite if exposed to a source of ignition resulting in a fire which could damage property.
1.5.2 Qualified Person The concept of “qualified person” implies knowledge or education (which may be technical) beyond, or different from, that of a competent person. One definition describes a qualified person as “one who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by exten- sive knowledge, training and experience, has successfully demonstrated ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.” For craft personnel, an OSHA formal interpretation puts the burden on the employer, stating “OSHA does not require tests to assess craft technical skills and knowledge. It is the responsibility of the employer to assure that their employees possess the skills and knowledge necessary to perform their tasks safely.” Facility or regulatory requirements may require welders to perform certain tests to qualify as a “code welder,” but the mandatory need for this qualification may be restricted to work on specific equipment; it may, or may not, be relevant to hot tap work depending on the equipment being hot tapped. For engineers a “qualified person” may be characterized as having relevant education, experience and specialized knowl- edge for the specific subject or activity.

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