API RP 2009-2002 pdf download.Safe Welding, Cutting, and Hot Work Practices in the Petroleum and Petrochemical Industries.
4.1 JOB ANALYSIS The Þrst step in the work process is establishing what needs to be accomplished and how the associated work is to be done. A work scope analysis should be performed to deter- mine if alternates to performing hot work activities exist within reasonable engineering and economic bounds. This is an appropriate time to consider alternative work procedures, such as cold cutting. If, after review, hot work is indeed required, the following priorities conform to good practice and regulatory require- ments: a. The work shall be moved to a safe area when possible and practical. Typically, this is an area speciÞcally designated as safe for hot work, such as a maintenance welding shop or an outlying fabricating area. b. If the work cannot be moved, then the review shall deter- mine whether the Þre hazards in the vicinity can be moved to a safe place. c. If the object on which hot work is to be performed cannot be moved and if all the Þre hazards cannot be removed, then physical barriers shall be used to conÞne the ignition sources (such as heat, sparks, and slag) and to protect the immovable Þre hazards from ignition. If the work cannot be done except by performing hot work in place, each activity should be closely analyzed for all hazards, such as the potential hazards discussed in this publica- tion or on the MSDSs relevant to the materials involved (see Section 5). Along with the safeguards in step c above, this should minimize the risk that hot work may provide a source of personnel exposure or ignition hazards which could lead to a Þre or explosion. The consequences of each hazard should be carefully weighed along with unexpected conditions that might occur during hot work. Contingency plans should be in place to Þnish hot work without incident, including alternate methods (such as changes in plant operations) where necessary. Contingency plans should include potential incident needs for Þre Þght- ing, personnel evacuation or community notiÞcations. 4.2 REVIEW BY QUALIFIED PERSONS Work on certain types of equipment must be reviewed and approved by qualiÞed persons before the job starts. Hot work, welding or repairs on vessels, exchangers, and tanks typically require evaluation and approval by qualiÞed persons. These might be experienced engineering personnel, pressure equip- ment specialists or licensed inspectors. Typically, this review is used when there may be a requirement for more technical or engineering knowledge or a regulatory or code requirement. This review should be conducted as part of the job analysis.
5.2 PHYSICAL HAZARDS Many of the hazards present in the normal workplace exist in the welding environment. Normal use of workplace PPE and precautions against slip/trip/fall hazards are the same, and are not addressed here. Similarly, if work is done at heights, the facility (or organization) fall protection procedures and equip- ment should be used. Arc welding requires electric power, and work in conÞned spaces needs lighting. Suitable electrical work practices should be followed for whatever electrical equipment is in use, especially in wet or moist conditions (including perspiration) where there is potential for contact with metal parts which are Òelectrically hotÓ (see 5.11). In the welding environment, especially in conÞned spaces, the work area is often congested because of the number of cables, hoses and lines required. While normal procedures are applicable, it is good to review the placement of equipment to reduce exposure to tripping hazards. Because hot work and welding are heat-generating pro- cesses, there should be care to use appropriate protective clothing to avoid thermal burns. Injuries have occurred due to sparks or hot metal falling into pockets, folds of rolled up sleeves, pants-cuffs or work boots. Frayed clothing is more easily ignited. Eye and face injuries can be caused by ßying particles, molten metal, liquid chemicals, acids or caustic liquids, or chemical gasses or vapors. Safe work practices should protect persons against falling sparks, chips and slag when working below welding being done at elevation. 5.3 POTENTIAL ACUTE HEALTH HAZARDS AND RISK REDUCTION Acute health hazards affect people during or shortly after exposure. The effects may be transient or longer lasting. Typ- ically these short-term exposure effects are reversible when removed from exposure. Examples are irritation of the eyes or respiratory system caused by inhalation exposure over a short time to vapors, gases or from welding fumes.