API RP 19D-2021 pdf download

API RP 19D-2021 pdf download

API RP 19D-2021 pdf download.Measuring Conductivity of Proppants.
1 Scope This standard provides recommended testing procedures for evaluating proppants used in hydraulic fracturing and gravel-packing operations. NOTE The “proppants” mentioned henceforth in this document refer to natural sand, ceramic media, resin-coated proppants, gravel packing media, and other materials used for hydraulic fracturing and gravel-packing operations. The objective of the document is to provide consistent methodology for testing procedures used to measure performance of hydraulic-fracturing or gravel-packing proppants, or both. The testing procedures in this document are not designed to provide values of proppant conductivity under downhole reservoir conditions. Long-term test data have shown that time, elevated temperatures, fracturing fuid residues, cyclic stress loading, embedment, formation fnes and other factors further reduce fracture proppant pack conductivity. Also, this reference test is designed to measure only the frictional energy losses corresponding to laminar fow within a pack. It is recognized that fuid velocity within an actual fracture can be signifcantly higher than in these laboratory tests and can be dominated by inertial efects. 2 Normative References The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced standard (including any amendments) applies. API Standard 19C, Measurement of and Specifcations for Proppants used in Hydraulic Fracturing and Gravel- packing Operations ISO 1 3506-1, Mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant stainless-steel fasteners — Part 1: Bolts, screws, and studs 3? Terms,? Defnitions,? Symbols,? and? Abbreviations 3.1? Terms? and? Defnitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and defnitions apply. 3.1.1 conductivity Width of the fracture multiplied by the permeability of the proppant pack
5.2.2 Stainless Steel 316 Platens (316 SS) 316 SS or equivalent material platens should be used as an alternative to sandstone platen. Alternative platens can produce substantially diferent results compared with sandstone. For example, 316 SS platens may produce higher conductivity/permeability values due to minimal proppant embedment. When used, test results shall be clearly marked as using a specifc grade of 316 SS platens. 316 SS platens, in contact with the proppant bed, shall have dimensions and shape identical to stone platens as stated in 5.2.1 [length: 176.80 mm to 177.80 mm (6.960 in. to 7.000 in.), width: 37.70 mm to 38.10 mm (1.485 in. to 1.500 in.)]. As an alternative, a minimum of 1.40 mm (0.055 in.) thick disposable metal platen should be used in contact with the proppant supported by another 316 SS platen of a minimum of 6.70 mm (0.265 in.) thickness, contingent on the abilities of the 316 SS platen and piston to ft properly into the cell body. The ends of the 316 SS platens shall be rounded to ft into the test cell. Platen parallelism shall be maintained to ±0.03 mm (±0.001 in.) of platen length. In the event of visible surface anomalies, 316 SS platens shall be returned to machine shop for resurfacing/repair to the original surface condition. Platens of 8.90 mm (0.350 in.) thickness should be desired for platens intended to be resurfaced and reused. Visible surface anomalies, such as pitting or machine marks, may be present on either new or reused metal platens and shall be repaired before use of those (new or reused) metal platens. If any 316 SS equivalent platens were used material properties shall be reported. 5.3 Stainless Steel Shims (Backup Support) 316 SS or equivalent material shims should provide additional support for the stone platens and the seal ring at elevated stress where native stone platens tend to fex and crack or even break. Shims as noted in Figure C.1 shall have dimensions of 176.80 mm to 177.80 mm (6.960 in. to 7.000 in.) in length, 37.70 mm to 38.10 mm

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