API RP 1109-2010 pdf download.Marking Liquid Petroleum Pipeline Facilities.
5 Pipeline Facility Marking Practice 5.1 General Description, Use, and Placement of Signage 5.1.1 Signage can be found in various shapes, sizes, and designs. Permanent pipeline facility markers and signs are used to convey the following information to the public and emergency responders: a) the presence of a liquid petroleum pipeline facility; b) a potential hazard warning; c) the contact telephone number of the pipeline operator for any of the following: 1) to determine the location of the buried pipeline, 2) to receive authorization to cross or occupy the pipeline rights-of-way, 3) to report emergencies relating to the pipeline or pipeline right-of-way. 5.1.2 Pipeline personnel may use pipeline markers, aerial markers and other signs to readily identify their pipeline, pipeline right of way, or crossing in the course of various day-to-day operation and maintenance activities or emergency response.
5.1.3 The placement of signage is dependent on the purpose, type of signage, and local conditions. When installing pipeline markers, for example, consideration should be given to installing them on each side of public roads, railroad crossings fence lines, property lines, water crossings, above ground crossings, and other locations accessible to the public. When installing Aerial Markers, consideration should be given to terrain, land use adjoining the ROW, flight path, and physical points along the ROW to be identified, such as PI’s and main line—lateral take-offs. When determining the frequency and spacing between markers, consideration should be given to land use, terrain, environment, population density, local ordinances, and other damage prevention considerations such as special excavation activity, one call law exemptions, and frequency of excavated related near misses. Line Markers should be installed over each pipeline; however, there are locations where it is impractical, such as when a pipeline runs down the middle of the street, parallels the road under the shoulder, or traverses heavily developed urban areas. Line markers that are not placed over the pipeline should denote that the line is offset. Supplemental signage such as curb markers, ground level markers or pavement decals should also be considered. At a minimum, locations should be chosen to meet or exceed the requirements of 49 CFR Part 195. Examples of cross country right-of-way line markings are shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2. 5.2 Types of Posts The type of post used will be dependent on the signage used and location. Posts may be made of any materials that will ensure adequate strength, stiffness, visibility, and durability. To maintain structural integrity and appearance, some post materials require surface protection against above- and below-ground corrosion or weathering. A proven coating system that provides a suitable finish and nonfading color should be selected for this purpose.
5.3 Line Markers 5.3.1 Part 195 of 49 CFR requires that certain information be presented on line markers in lettering of a certain size and stroke. The regulations further require that line markers be placed over all buried pipeline at each public road crossing, at each railroad crossing, and in sufficient numbers along the remainder of each buried pipeline so that its location is accurately known. 5.3.2 The line marker’s message should be presented on strong, durable material finished to resist the effects of exposure and vandalism. The message should state at least the following: “WARNING,” followed by the words “PETROLEUM [or the name of the liquid petroleum transported] PIPELINE.” The lettering should be at least 1 in. high with an approximate stroke of 1 / 4 in. on a background of sharply contrasting color. It should also contain the name of the pipeline operator with a telephone number, including an area code, where the pipeline operator can be reached at all times. 5.3.3 The line markers depicted in Figure 3 and Figure 4 are examples of line markers in general use by the liquid petroleum pipeline industry. The dimensions, wording, colors, and configuration shown on the figures are recommended for good visibility. The size and style of the lettering identifying the pipeline operator are optional. A trademark or other identifying symbol may appear as part of the pipeline operator’s identification. 5.3.4 Caution should be used when installing a line marker anywhere other than directly over or in proximity to the buried pipeline to avoid any possible misinterpretation as to where the actual pipeline is located. 5.4 Signage 5.4.1 The pipeline operator may use markers and signs in addition to line markers to aid in determining the locations of the pipeline. Examples of such markers are listed below: a) aerial patrol markers; b) prominently colored posts at fences, and right-of-way limits of roads and railroads;