API PUBL 4713-2002 pdf download.Test Report: Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit at a Refinery (Site A) Characterization of Fine Particulate Emission Factors and Speciation Profiles from Stationary Petroleum Industry Combustion Sources.
• Traditional in-stack/impinger method (Method 201A and controlled condensation) results are considered the best representation of actual filterable and condensible particulate mass emissions from the FCCU, respectively. • The dilution tunnel test protocol is capable of chemically speciating a much broader range of substances (including many inorganic and organic hazardous air pollutants) comprising PM2.5 emissions than traditional in-stack/impinger methods. Dilution tunnel results are considered the best representation of PM2.5 speciation, compared to traditional in-stack/impinger methods. • PM2.5 emissions from this FCCU were 24 percent filterable particulate matter and 76 percent condensible particulate matter (based on Method 201A and controlled condensation results, respectively). • PM2.5 (including sulfuric acid mist) comprises 97 percent to the total particulate emissions from the FCCU. • PM2.5 mass emissions measured by the dilution tunnel are biased low due to deposition of solid particles in the probe, sample line, venturi, and other components upstream of the filter. For mass emission measurements applied to FCCUs, further development of the dilution tunnel and test methodology is needed to reduce unaccounted particle losses in the sampling system. • PM2.5 emissions from the FCCU at this refinery are composed principally of catalyst fines, sulfur trioxide (at stack temperatures) and sulfuric acid. • SO 2 and NO X comprise the majority of PM2.5 precursor emissions from this FCCU. • Emissions of speciated organic compounds, including several hazardous air pollutants, are extremely low, with only a few compounds significantly exceeding background levels or minimum detection limits. • Potential chemical markers for FCCU emissions include silicon, aluminum, iron, lanthanum, titanium, vanadium and nickel. • Despite uncertainties associated with some measurements, these results represent a very comprehensive and useful characterization of FCCU emissions.
In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new ambient air standards for particulate matter, including, for the first time, particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers (µm), also referred to as PM2.5. There are few existing data regarding emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from petroleum industry combustion sources, and such information that is available is fairly old. Traditional stationary source air emission sampling methods tend to underestimate or overestimate the contribution of some sources to ambient aerosols because they do not properly account for primary aerosol formation which occurs after the gases leave the stack. This issue was extensively reviewed by API in a recent report (England et al., 1997) which concluded that dilution sampling techniques are more appropriate for obtaining a representative sample from combustion systems. These techniques, which have been widely used in research studies (Hildemann et al., 1994; McDonald et al., 1998), use clean ambient air to dilute the stack gas sample and provide 80-90 seconds residence time for aerosol formation prior to sample collection for determination of mass and chemical speciation. As a result of the API review, a test protocol was developed based on the dilution sampling system described in this report, which was then used to collect particulate emissions data from petroleum industry combustion sources, along with emissions data obtained from conventional sampling methods.
Primary objectives • Compare PM2.5 mass measured using an in-stack filter and iced impinger train (EPA Method 201A/202) and PM2.5 mass measured using a dilution tunnel; • Develop emission factors and speciation profiles for organic aerosols and PM2.5 mass; • Characterize sulfate (SO 4 = ), nitrate (NO 3 – ), ammonium (NH 4 + ), chloride (Cl – ) elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in particulate matter collected on filter media after stack gas dilution; • Characterize semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) in stack gas samples after dilution; • Characterize key gaseous secondary particle precursors in stack gas samples: volatile organic compounds (VOC) with carbon number of 7 and above; sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ); sulfur trioxide (SO 3 ); ammonia (NH 3 ); and oxides of nitrogen (NO X ); • Document the relevant process design characteristics and operating conditions during the test. Secondary Objectives • Characterize ions (SO 4 = , NO 3 – , NH 4 + and Cl – ), OC, and EC in particulate collected on filter media in stack gas sampling trains; • Characterize the size distribution of solid and condensible particles at stack conditions. TEST OVERVIEW The scope of testing is summarized in Table 1-1. The emissions testing included collection and analysis of both in-stack and diluted stack gas samples. All emission samples were collected from the stack of the unit. An ambient air sample also was collected.