API Publ 4712-2001 pdf download.Gas-Fired Steam Generator— Test Report Site C Characterization of Fine Particulate Emission Factors and Speciation Profiles from Stationary Petroleum Industry Combustion Sources.
In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new ambient air standards for particulate matter, including for the first time particles with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5). There are few existing data regarding emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from petroleum industry combustion sources, and the information that is available is old. Traditional stationary source air emission sampling methods tend to underestimate or overestimate the contribution of the source to ambient aerosols because they do not properly account for primary aerosol formation, which occurs after the gases leave the stack. This issue was extensively reviewed by the American Petroleum Institue (API) in a recent report (England et al., 1997), which concluded that dilution sampling techniques are more appropriate for obtaining a representative sample from combustion systems. These techniques have been widely used in research studies (Hildemann et al., 1994; McDonald et al., 1998) and use clean ambient air to dilute the stack gas sample and provide 80-90 seconds residence time for aerosol formation prior to sample collection for determination of mass and chemical speciation. As a result of the API review, a test protocol was developed based on the dilution sampling system described in this report. The dilution sampling protocol was used to collect particulate emissions data from petroleum industry combustion sources, along with emissions data obtained from conventional sampling methods. This test program is designed to provide reliable source emissions data for use in assessing the contribution of petroleum industry combustion sources to ambient PM2.5 concentrations. TEST OVERVIEW The scope of testing is summarized in Table 1-1. The emissions testing included simultaneous collection and analysis of both in-stack and diluted stack gas samples. All emission samples were collected from the stack of the unit. The samples were analyzed for the compounds listed in Table 1-2. Process data and fuel gas samples were collected during the tests to document operating conditions. Source Level (In-stack) Samples In-stack sampling and analysis for filterable (total, PM10 and PM2.5) and condensible particulate matter (CPM), NO x , oxygen (O 2 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO) and SO 2 was performed using traditional EPA methods. In-stack cyclones and filters were used for filterable particulate matter. Sample analysis was expanded to include OC, EC and organic species on the in-stack quartz filters.
Dilution Stack Gas Samples Dilution sampling was used to characterize PM2.5 including aerosols formed in the near-field plume. The dilution sampler extracted a sample stream from the stack into a mixing chamber, where it was diluted approximately 21:1 with purified ambient air. Because PM2.5 behaves aerodynamically like a gas at typical stack conditions, the samples were extracted nonisokinetically. A slipstream of the mixed and diluted sample was extracted into a residence time chamber where it resided for approximately 80 seconds to allow time for low-concentration aerosols, especially organics, to condense and grow. The diluted and aged sample then passed through cyclone separators sized to remove particles larger than 2.5 microns, after which samples were collected on various media: high-purity quartz, Teflon ® membrane filters (TMF), and Teflon ® -impregnated glass fiber (TIGF) filters; a polyurethane foam (PUF)/Amberlite ® sorbent resin (XAD-4)/PUF cartridge to collect gas phase semivolatile organic compounds; and a Tenax cartridge to capture VOCs.
KEY PERSONNEL GE Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) had primary responsibility for the test program. Key personnel involved in the tests were: • Glenn England (GE EER) – Program Manager (949) 859-8851 • Stephanie Wien (GE EER) – Project Engineer (949) 859-8851 • Bob Zimperman (GE EER) – Field Team Leader (949) 552-1803 • Barbara Zielinska (Desert Research Institute) – Dilution Sampling and Laboratory Analysis (775) 674-7066 • Karl Loos (Equilon Enterprises LLC) – API Work Group Chairman (281) 544- 7264 • Karin Ritter (API) – API Project Officer (202) 682-8472