API MPMS TR 2570-2010 pdf download.Continuous On-line Measurement of Water Content in Petroleum (Crude Oil and Condensate).
3.2 emulsion An oil/water mixture that does not readily separate. 3.3 entrained water Water suspended in oil. Entrained water includes emulsions but does not include dissolved water. 3.4 flow proportional water measurement The flow weighted average water content over a fixed time period or batch volume determined from the OWD measurement and the liquid flow rate through the pipe during the time or batch period. 3.5 flow weighted average (FWA) The average of a variable weighted by the flow rate or incremental volume. It can be the average of the variable values sampled at uniform volume intervals, or it can be the average of variable values sampled at uniform time intervals and weighted by the incremental volume that occurred during that time interval. 3.6 footprint verification A number, a set of numbers, a table, an equation, or a curve representing the raw measurement (usually a frequency) of the meter, with a specific, uniquely defined content in the sensor section. The footprint should be recorded as part of factory calibration, so that it can later be used as a reference during a reproducibility check to verify that the meter has not changed its response. 3.7 free water Water that exists in a separate phase. 3.8 homogenous When a liquid composition is the same at all points in the container, tank, or pipeline cross section. 3.9 measurement location Point where the OWD measures the water content of the petroleum stream. 3.10 on-line water measurement device (OWD) A real-time measuring device that uses electronics to detect and calculate water concentrations in petroleum and petroleum products. 3.11 OWD system An OWD system may be comprised of one or more OWDs, stream conditioning, other measurement devices (e.g., temperature, pressure, density, flow, etc.), and a computer to assimilate, compile, and report the data. NOTE In this document, OWD and OWD system may be used interchangeably. The technical report does not preclude any technology that meets the scope.
3.12 pacing The method of proportioning the measurement interval. 3.13 range The maximum and minimum values attainable from a measurement device. When applied to an OWD, the units will be percent water in oil by volume (e.g., 0 % to 5 %, or 0 % to 100 %). Units of percent water in oil by mass are also allowed if the OWD is suitably calibrated. NOTE In this document OWD and OWD systems are not designed to measure ppm of oil in water (i.e., very small amounts of oil in essentially 100 % water). For convenience, the following definitions from API MPMS Chapter 8.2 (2nd Ed Oct 1995) are included. 3.14 representative sample A portion extracted from a total volume that contains the constituents in the same proportions that are present in that total volume. 3.15 sample A portion extracted from a total volume that may or may not contain the constituents in the same proportions that are present in that total volume. 3.16 sample loop analyzer loop “fast” loop slipstream A low volume stream diverted from the main pipeline which may be dedicated to analyzers, a sampling system or part of a power mixing loop. 3.17 static mixer A device that utilizes the kinetic energy of the flowing stream to achieve stream conditioning. 3.18 stream condition The distribution and dispersion of the pipeline contents, upstream on the sampling location. 3.19 stream conditioning The mixing of a flowing stream so that a representative sample may be extracted. 4 Significance and Use The OWD provides instantaneous water percent readings. When coupled with a pacing device (e.g., meter) the total amount of water can be determined (net oil). OWDs may be used in different applications. Annex A shows some examples of common OWD applications.