API MPMS 5.3 2005 pdf download

API MPMS 5.3 2005 pdf download

API MPMS 5.3 2005 pdf download.Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 5—Metering Section 3—Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Turbine Meters.
5.3.3 Field of Application The field of application of this section is all segments of the petroleum industry in which dynamic measurement of liq- uid hydrocarbons is required. This section does not apply to the measurement of two-phase fluids. 5.3.4 Referenced Publications The current editions of the following API MPMS Stan- dards contain information applicable to this chapter: API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 4, “Proving Systems” Chapter 5.1, “General Considerations for Measurement by Meters” Chapter 5.4, “Accessory Equipment for Liquid Meters” Chapter 5.5, “Fidelity and Security of Flow Measurement Pulsed-Data Transmission Systems” Chapter 7, “Temperature” Chapter 8, “Sampling” Chapter 11, “Physical Properties Data” Chapter 12, “Calculation of Petroleum Quantities” Chapter 13, “Statistical Aspects of Measuring and Sampling” 5.3.5 Flow Conditioning The performance of turbine meters may be affected by swirl and non-uniform velocity profiles that are induced by upstream and downstream piping configurations, valves, pumps, fittings, joint misalignment, protruding gaskets, weld- ing projections, or other obstructions. Flow conditioning shall be used to overcome the adverse effects of swirl and non-uni- form velocity profiles on turbine meter performance. Flow conditioning requires the use of sufficient lengths of straight pipe or a combination of straight pipe and flow conditioning elements that are inserted in the meter run upstream (and downstream, if flow through the meter is bidi- rectional) of the turbine meter (see Figure 2). When only straight pipe is used, the liquid shear, or internal friction between the liquid and the pipe wall, shall be sufficient to accomplish the required flow conditioning. Appendix A should be referred to for guidance in applying the technique. For severe swirl, such as generated by two close coupled elbows out-of-plane (i.e., non-symmetrical swirl) or by a header (i.e., dual symmetrical swirl), a straightening ele- ment (i.e., swirl breaker) type of flow conditioner is required. These types of swirl are slow to dissipate in straight pipe, often existing after 100+ diameters of straight pipe. A straightening element or swirl-breaker type of flow conditioner usually consists of a cluster of tubes, vanes, or equivalent devices that are inserted longitudinally in a sec- tion of straight pipe (see Figure 2). Straightening elements effectively assist flow conditioning by eliminating swirl. Straightening elements may also consist of a series of perfo- rated plates or wire-mesh screens, but these forms normally cause a larger pressure drop than do tubes or vanes. Proper design and construction of the straightening element is important to ensure that swirl is not generated by the straightening element since swirl negates the function of the flow conditioner. The following guidelines are recom- mended to avoid the generation of swirl: a. The cross-section should be as uniform and symmetrical as possible. b. The design and construction should be rugged enough to resist distortion or movement at high flow rates. c. The general internal construction should be clean and free from welding protrusions and other obstructions. Isolating type flow conditioners, which produce a swirl-free, uniform velocity profile, independent of upstream piping configurations, are typically more sophisti- cated, expensive and higher pressure drop than simple straightening element type flow conditioners. However, in certain installations, they provide a performance advantage and should be considered. Flanges and gaskets shall be internally aligned, and gaskets shall not protrude into the liquid stream. Meters and the adjoining straightening section shall be concentrically aligned. CAUSES OF VARIATIONS IN METER FACTOR Many factors can change the performance of a turbine meter. Some factors, such as the entrance of foreign matter into the meter, can be remedied only by eliminating the cause. Other factors, such as the buildup of deposits in the meter, depend on the characteristics of the liquid being measured; these factors must be overcome by properly designing and operating the meter system. Conventional multi-bladed turbine meters perform in their most linear range when operated at Reynolds numbers (Re) above 30,000. Two-bladed helical turbine meters perform in their most linear range when operated well within the turbu- lent flow regime (i.e., above 10,000 Re).

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