API MPMS 14.3.4-2006 pdf download.Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 14-Natural Gas Fluids Measurement Sect ion 3-Concent ric, Square-Edged Orifice Meters Part 4-Background, Development, Implementation Procedures and Subroutine Documentation.
4.2 History and Development 4.2.1 BACKGROUND In May 1924, the Board of Directors of the Natural Gas Association (this later became the Natural Gas Department of the American Gas Association’) directed its Main Technical and Research Committee to establish a new subcommittee to be known as the Gas Meas- urement Committee. The duties of this new committee were outlined by the directors as: Determine the correct methods of installing orifice meters for measuring natural gas. Determine the necessary corrective factors and operative requirements in the use of orifice meters, using natural gas in all experimental work. Secure the cooperation and assistance of the National Bureau of Standards2 and the United States Bureau of Mines3, and secure, if possible, the assignment of members of their staffs to the Gas Measurement Committee to assist in this work. The Gas Measurement Committee held ifs first meefing in November 1924 and discussed various features of the work assigned to it. Beginning in the summer of 1925, and extending over a period of six years, this committee conducted several research projects on orifice meters. The Gas Measurement Committee published a preliminary report in 1927, which was revised in 1929, and Report No. 1 was issued in 1930. In the introduction to Report No. 1, the following statement was made: ‘This is not a final report, but it is made with the understanding that the committee will con- tinue its analytical studies of the data already developed, The committee also fully expects that it will be necessary for it to conduct further work of its own.
The material in Report No. 2 was based on a special engineering report made by the Joint American Gas AssociatiodAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers Committee on Orifice Coefficients to the Gas Measurement Committee in October 1934 and was present- ed to and accepted by the Main Technical and Research Committee in January 1935. The analysis of the data presented in the report of that joint committee was made by Dr. Edgar Buckingham and Mr. Howard S. Bean of the National Bureau of Standards and checked by Professor Samuel R. Beitler for the committee. The report of the joint committee in its original form passed through the editorial committee of the bureau and was approved for publication by the director of the bureau. Since publication of Report No. 2, new types of equipment have been made available for use in the construction of orifice meter stations, Further, the need developed for larger meter tube diameters and heavier wall pipe to measure the larger volumes of gas at higher meter- ing pressures. It was recognized by the industry that Report No. 2 should be brought up to date. Thus, early in 1953, the PAR Plan’s Pipeline Research Committee appointed the Supervising Committee for PAR Project NX-7, for the purpose of developing Gas Meas- urement Committee Report No. 3. To maintain cooperation between the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the American Gas Association in the development of publi- cations on orifice meters, the members of the supervising committee had dual membership on the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Research Committee on Fluid Meters, Subcommittee No. 15, as well as the NX-7 Committee.
Report No. 3 supplemented Report No. 2. Generally, all of the data in this report were the same as included in Report No. 2, except that it was expanded to cover a wider range of conditions. In many instances, slight changes were made and statements added to clarify some of the conditions brought about from practical application of Reports No. 1 and 2. In Report No. 3, a pressure base of 14.73 pounds per square inch absolute was adopted to replace the former pressure base of 14.4 pounds per square inch absolute. The results are consistent with those obtained from Report No. 2. Since the publication of Report No. 3 in 1955, there have been refinements and new developments in the measurement of natural gas. The 1969 revision updated the report and provided additional information which had been developed since the original publication. The basic concepts in Report No. 3 were not changed. The use of large pipe diameters and new manufacturing techniques as well as the use of computers, required additional material to make the report more useful. Fundamentally, however, these revisions did not make any appreciable changes. The compressibility material presented was abstracted from the Manual for Determining Supercompressibility Factors for Natural Gas.