API 1102 2017 pdf download.Steel Pipelines Crossing Railroads and Highways.
1 Scope 1.1 General This recommended practice, Steel Pipelines Crossing Railroads and Highways, gives primary emphasis to provisions for public safety. It covers the design, installation, inspection, and testing required to ensure safe crossings of steel pipelines under railroads and highways. The provisions apply to the design and construction of welded steel pipelines under railroads and highways. The provisions of this practice are formulated to protect the facility crossed by the pipeline, as well as to provide adequate design for safe installation and operation of the pipeline. 1.2 Application The provisions herein should be applicable to the construction of pipelines crossing under railroads and highways and to the adjustment of existing pipelines crossed by railroad or highway construction. This practice should not be applied retroactively. Neither should it apply to pipelines under contract for construction on or prior to the effective date of this edition. Neither should it be applied to directionally drilled crossings or to pipelines installed in utility tunnels. 1.3 Type of Pipeline This practice applies to welded steel pipelines. 1.4 Provisions for Public Safety The provisions give primary emphasis to public safety. The provisions set forth in this practice adequately provide for safety under conditions normally encountered in the pipeline industry. Requirements for abnormal or unusual conditions are not specifically discussed, nor are all details of engineering and construction provided. The applicable regulations of federal [5, 6], state, municipal, and regulatory institutions having jurisdiction over the facility to be crossed shall be observed during the design and construction of the pipeline. 1.5 Approval for Crossings Prior to the construction of a pipeline crossing, arrangements should be made with the authorized agent of the facility to be crossed.
2.3 Definitions The following definitions of terms apply to this practice: 2.3.1 carrier pipe A steel pipe for transporting gas or liquids. 2.3.2 cased pipeline or cased pipe A carrier pipe inside a casing that crosses beneath a railroad or highway. 2.3.3 casing A conduit through which the carrier pipe may be placed. 2.3.4 flexible casing Casing that may undergo permanent deformation or change of shape without fracture of the wall. NOTE Steel pipe is an example of a flexible casing. 2.3.5 flexible pavement A highway surface made of viscous asphaltic materials. 2.3.6 girth weld A full circumferential butt weld joining two adjacent sections of pipe. 2.3.7 highly volatile liquid (HVL) A hazardous liquid that will form a vapor cloud when released to the atmosphere and that has a vapor pressure exceeding 40 psia (276 kPa) at 1 00 °F (37.8 °C). 2.3.8 highway Any road or driveway that is used frequently as a thoroughfare and is subject to self-propelled vehicular traffic. 2.3.9 longitudinal weld A full penetration groove weld running lengthwise along the pipe made during fabrication of the pipe.
2.3.10 maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) or maximum operating pressure (MOP) The maximum pressure at which a pipeline or segment of a pipeline may be operated with limits as determined by applicable design codes and regulations. 2.3.11 percussive moling A construction method in which a device is used to advance a hole as sections of pipe are jacked simultaneously into place behind the advancing instrument. 2.3.12 pipe jacking with auger boring A construction method for pipeline crossings in which the excavation is performed by a continuous auger as sections of pipe are welded and then jacked simultaneously behind the front of the advancing auger. 2.3.13 pressure testing A continuous, uninterrupted test of specified time duration and pressure of the completed pipeline or piping systems, or segments thereof, which qualifies them for operation. 2.3.14 railroad Rails fixed to ties laid on a roadbed providing a track for rolling stock drawn by locomotives or propelled by self- contained motors. 2.3.15 rigid pavement Highway surface or subsurface made of Portland cement concrete. 2.3.16 split casing A casing made of a pipe that is cut longitudinally and rewelded around the carrier pipe. 2.3.17 trenchless construction Any construction method, other than directional dirlling, for installing pipelines by subsurface excavation without the use of open trenching. 2.3.18 uncased pipeline or uncased pipe Carrier pipe without a casing that crosses beneath a railroad or highway.