API 100-1 2020 pdf download.Hydraulic Fracturing—Well Integrity and Fracture Containment.
1 Scope 1.1 This document contains recommended practices for onshore well construction and fracture stimulation design and execution as it relates to well integrity and fracture containment. The provisions in this document relate to the following two areas. a) Well integrity: the design and installation of well equipment to a standard that — protects and isolates useable quality groundwater, — delivers and executes a hydraulic fracture treatment, and — contains and isolates the produced fluids. b) Fracture containment: the design and execution of hydraulic fracturing treatments to contain the resulting fracture within a prescribed geologic interval. Fracture containment combines those parameters that are existing, those that can be established at installation, and those that can be controlled during execution: — existing—formation parameters with associated range of uncertainties; — established—well barriers and integrity as created during well construction; — controllable—fracture design and execution parameters. 1.2 The guidance from this document covers recommendations for pressure containment barrier design and well construction practices for onshore wells that will undergo hydraulic fracture stimulation. This document is specifically for wells drilled and completed onshore, although many of the provisions are applicable to wells in coastal waters.
1.3 This document does not attempt to address the full well life cycle of well operations although a brief paragraph on fracture stimulation for re-entries is included in 5.10. This document is not a detailed well construction or fracture design manual. This document does not apply to continuous injection operations such as water disposal, water-flooding or cuttings re-injection wells, or any other continuous injection operation. 1.4 API 100-2 is a companion document that also contains recommended practices applicable to the planning and operation of hydraulically fractured wells. This document includes recommendations for managing environmental aspects during well planning, construction, and execution. 2 Normative References The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. API Standard 65-2, Isolating Potential Flow Zones During Well Construction API Recommended Practice 100-2, Environmental Aspects Associated with E&P Operations Including Hydraulic Fracturing
3 Terms, Definitions, Acronyms, and Abbreviations 3.1 Terms and Definitions For the purposes of this document, the following definitions apply. 3.1.1 annulus The space between the borehole and tubulars or between tubulars. 3.1.2 aquifer A subsurface formation that is sufficiently permeable to conduct groundwater and to yield economically significant quantities of water to wells and springs. 3.1.3 barrier A component or practice that contributes to the total system reliability by preventing liquid or gas flow when properly installed. 3.1.4 calibration test A small injection treatment, performed prior to the main hydraulic fracturing treatment, to acquire job design and execution data. 3.1.5 cased hole The wellbore intervals in a well that are cased with casing and/or a liner. 3.1.6 centralizer A mechanical device that is attached to the outside of the casing and used to facilitate running casing to the desired depth and to assist in centering the casing in the wellbore. NOTE 1 These devices are designed to contact the wall of the hole the casing is being run in and center the casing in the well and/or keep the casing from contacting the wellbore wall. NOTE 2 These can be either bow spring, rigid, or solid body devices (see API 10D-2). 3.1.7 completion string The string consists primarily of production tubing, but also includes additional components such as gas lift mandrels, chemical injection and instrument ports, landing nipples, and packer or packer seal assemblies. NOTE The completion string is installed inside the production casing and used to produce fluids to the surface. 3.1.8 conductor casing Casing that supports unconsolidated sediments providing hole stability for initial drilling operations. NOTE 1 This is normally the first string set and provides no pressure containment. NOTE 2 This string can also provide structural support to the well system.